» Scorpion SA Vz 61 submachine gun (Czechoslovakia / Czech Republic)

Scorpion SA Vz 61 submachine gun (Czechoslovakia / Czech Republic)

Scorpion SA Vz 61 submachine gun, with 10-round magazine. Shoulder stock folded

Scorpion SA Vz 61 submachine gun with shoulder stock unfolded

Scorpion SA Vz 68 - a rare version of the basic submachine gun produced for infantry use, chambered for 9x19 ammunition

Scorpion SA Vz 82 submachine gun, chambered for 9x18 PM ammunition

the last in Scorpion line - SA 361 submachine gun, chambered for 9x19 Luger / Parabellum ammunition

Caliber: 7.65x17mm (.32ACP) in vz.61; also 9x18mm Makarov in vz.82 and 9x17mm (.380ACP) in vz.83
Weight: 1.28 kg without magazine
Length (stock closed/open): 270 / 517 mm
Barrel length: 115 mm
Rate of fire: ca. 850 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 10 or 20 rounds
Effective range: 25 meters

The Scorpion submachine gun is an interesting little weapon which is somewhat hard to classify - is it a machine pistol (a full-automatic weapon for single-hand fire) or a submachine gun (also an automatic weapon, but for shoulder fire). Either way, there are pros and cons. Nevertheless, this weapon deserved its place in history of firearms. Its development was initiated in late 1950s, with intent to provide various non-infantry units with lightweight personal defense weapon that is more effective than a pistol, but is no more obtrusive. Another niche for Scorpion was use by various special forces, because the selected cartridge, known as 7,65x17 Browning / .32 ACP can be easily silenced. First prototypes of a new weapon were built in 1959, and official adoption followed in 1961, under designation of "Samopal Vzor 1961" (submachine gun model of 1961), or SA Vz.61 in short. This weapon was issued to various units in Czechoslovak army, and also widely exported. Licensed version of the Scorpion was produced in Yugoslavia, where it was widely issued as an military officer's sidearm. At least few Scorpions found its way to the hands of various terrorist groups, which favored it for its small size and ease of silencing. It also can be easily fired singe-handedly, like most pistols.
When Czechoslovak army adopted Soviet 9x18 PM pistol cartridge in 1982, the Scorpion was redesigned to accept this bigger and somewhat more powerful ammunition. Export versions of the new model, known in Czechoslovak service as SA Vz.82, were produced in 9x17 Browning / .380 ACP. The last versions of the Scorpion family were produced during early 1990s, and included "military-type" selective-fired SA 391 and "civilian" SA 91s, which was semi-automatic only. Either gun was chambered for 9x19 Luger / Parabellum ammunition. The SA 391 is still being offered to eligible buyers by famous CZ-UB factory.

Scorpion submachine gun is blowback operated weapon, with original rate-reducing mechanism. The rate reducer uses special sear which locks the bolt in the rearward position. A special plunger reciprocates down and up in the channel made within pistol grip. When bolt comes to its rearmost position, it strikes the plunger and then is locked by the sear. Plunger cycles inside its channel, and on its return trips the sear to release the bolt. This produces enough delay to slow down the cyclic rate of fire to reasonable 850 rounds per minute. The firing is controlled by the trigger unit with separate hammer and manual safety / fire selector which permits for single shots and full automatic fire. Cocking handle is made in the form of dual sliders, which are located on both sides of stamped steel upper receiver. The lower receiver, which hosts pistol grip, trigger unit and magazine, is made from machined steel.
Magazines are double stack, and capacity varies depending on the version and caliber (standard capacity is 10 or 20 rounds). Gun is fitted with folding shoulder stock, made from steel wire, and is usually issued with leather pistol-type holster and magazine pouches.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Thu 22 Jul 2010  موضوع: other   لینک مطلب    
» atom bomb for japanese

Hastings argues that our understanding of the events of 1939-45 would be improved by referring to World Wars II, since the only thing in common between the Europe conflict and the Pacific war was the identity of adversaries.

He points out that a Japanese attack on the Soviet rear in 1941 would have had much more consequence than Pearl Harbor, where they did not smash the American fleet, but sank only six old battleships, two of which were repaired and fought later in the war. Hitler did not even try to enlist Japanese assistance until the loss of Stalingrad in 1943, by which time the Japanese could offer very little.

It also helps our understanding of the war to realize that the Japanese did not attack independent countries in Asia. Rather, they invaded colonial outposts that Europeans had dominated for generations. Japanese treatment of the Asian people they conquered was even worse than their treatment of whites they captured.

Hastings blames the Japanese warrior ethic of bushido for the barbarous way their armed forces treated conquered people and prisoners. Their cult of honor precluded individual surrender, even requiring suicide to avoid loss of face. That attitude caused them to treat prisoners with contempt and made it exceedingly difficult for them to admit defeat. At a time when 50,000 Germans were surrendering each month, the Allies held fewer than 2,000 Japanese prisoners. Many Japanese who appeared ready to surrender were actually setting traps to kill their putative captors. Japanese sailors rescued from drowning by Americans after their own ships were sunk often tried to sabotage the rescuing vessels. After many such incidents early in the war, Americans became justifiably reluctant to take prisoners.

Hastings tells the tale of the British fighting in Burma under their very able general William Slim. Fighting was brutal and logistics were dreadful. Although the effort was heroic and competent, that theater did little or nothing to end the war.

Hastings paints incisive portraits of some of the principal characters of the drama. Stalin is calculating and ruthless, no surprise here. Truman is limited in talent, but his wisdom, honesty, and general goodness enables him to make great decisions. MacArthur is egomaniacal and not even a good general, but his behavior after the surrender was magnanimous and admirable. Nimitz and the navy did much more than MacArthur’s army to defeat the Japanese. Chiang Kai-shek was petty, ineffectual, and corrupt, much more interested in fighting Mao that the Japanese. Mao stayed out of the way of the Japanese and avoided conflict until the Japanese had been defeated and left China.

B-29s in formation near Mt. Fuji

The story of the B-29 is particularly interesting. The development of the bomber was more expensive than the development of the atomic bomb. Moreover, the first B-29s delivered were not very reliable, and were as much a danger to their own crew as to the Japanese. The first B-29s were deployed in India and China, but the Japanese soon conquered enough Chinese territory to drive the B-29s out of range of the home islands. The later models of the plane became very formidable, and rugged enough to hold off Japanese fighter aircraft by themselves.

By August 1945, the Soviets were no longer allies of the Americans. The U.S. would have preferred for the Russians to stay out of the war, but Stalin ordered 1.5 million soldiers to invade Manchuria. The Russians took nearly the entire manufacturing infrastructure of Manchuria back with them.

The Japanese government was incapable of reacting quickly. By early summer 1945, after the loss of the Marianas, the Japanese situation was clearly hopeless with the home islands within the range of the improved B-29s. The atomic bombs and the Soviet invasion might have been avoided, but Japan could not make timely decisions that would fundamentally change their conduct of the war.

The decision to drop the atomic bombs was made before Potsdam, with Truman concurring rather than leading. The theater commanders were then given full authority to select the timing and targets.

Hastings argues that the bombs saved lives, certainly compared to the loss of life that an invasion of the home islands would have entailed. Even if it had not been necessary to invade the home islands, the bombs hastened the very slow decision making of the Japanese. Because the Japanese had no effective air defenses many more lives would have been lost through firebombing cities and the total destruction of the Japanese transportation system.

Many key governmental and military officials committed seppuku (ritual suicide) after the surrender. Those who did not feared junior officers would assassinate them. Even after surrender, Japan still had millions of soldiers stationed in China and the remaining Pacific islands, many of whom did not want to surrender.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Tue 20 Jul 2010  موضوع: bomb   لینک مطلب    
» ZK-383 submachine gun (Czechoslovakia)

ZK-383 submachine gun (Czechoslovakia)

ZK-383 submachine gun, right side

ZK-383 submachine gun, left side

ZK-383P submachine gun; note that it has no facilities to mount a bipod

ZK-383H submachine gun of post-WW2 manufacture, with bottom-feed magazine that can be folded forward for carrying

Data for ZK-383 submachine gun

Caliber 9x19mm Luger / Parabellum
Weight, empty 4.25 kg
Length (stock closed/open) 875 mm
Barrel length 325 mm
Rate of fire 500 or 700 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 30 rounds
Effective range 250 meters

The ZK-383 submachine gun was developed during late 1930s by Czechoslovak arms designers brothers Koucky, who at the time worked at the Zbrojovka Brno arms factory. Produced since 1938, this submachine gun was exported to certain smaller European countries, as well as to Latin America (most notably the Venezuela and Bolivia). Production of the ZK-383 continued at Brno during German occupation, with most wartime guns being  supplied to German Waffen-SS troops and occupation police forces. The ZK-383 was also briefly produced after the war, before being replaced in production with more modern and compact weapons such as Cz. Vz.48 / Sa 23. One of most notable European users of ZK-383 was the Bulgarian army, which used these guns until about 1966. The ZK-383 is an interesting weapon because it was initially developed more like a squad support weapon rather than an individual weapon - it was heavy, solidly made, and capable of some serious firepower (considering the pistol ammunition used, of cause). It was also fitted with 'long range' rifle type sights and integral folding bipod. there also were two later versions of the ZK-383 - the 'Police' ZK-383P which had no bipod, and post-war ZK-383H which also had no bipod and had folding forward magazine housing below the receiver (rather than fixed housing on the left side). Total production of all three versions of ZK-383 is estimated as no less than 20,000 guns.

The ZK-383 submachine gun is blowback operated, selective fired weapon. Unlike most other submachine guns, it had a quick-detachable barrel, with barrel lock / release mechanism located in the front sight base, at the front of the barrel jacket.ZK-383 fired from open bolt, and featured removable bolt weight which, when removed, increased cyclic rate of fire from about 500 to roughly 700 rounds per minute. Feed was from box magazines, inserted from the left side, with magazine slightly canted down, ejection was to the right. Manual safety was made in the form of the cross-bolt button located above the trigger, and fire mode selector was located on the left side of the receiver, above and to the front of the trigger. Gun was quipped with two-piece wooden stock and folding bipod, which was attached to the barrel jacket. When folded, bipod was partly concealed within the cut made in the bottom of the forend. Sights were adjustable for range between 50 and 600 meters.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Mon 19 Jul 2010  موضوع: other   لینک مطلب    
» Type 05 5.8mm / JS 9mm submachine gun (PR China)

Type 05 5.8mm / JS 9mm submachine gun (PR China)

Military issue Type 05 submachine gun, caliber 5.8x21mm

Police-type JS submachine gun, caliber 9x19mm, fitted with telescope sight and detachable silencer

  Type 05 JS (Jian She)
Caliber 5.8x21mm DAP92-5.8 9x19mm DAP92-9 (9mm Luger/Para)
Weight 2.2 kg empty 2.1 kg empty
Length  500 mm 450 mm
Barrel length n/a n/a
Rate of fire n/a n/a
Magazine capacity 50 rounds 30 rounds
Effective range 150-200 m 100-150 m








The Type 05 submachine gun is the join development of the PLA's 208 Research Institute and Jian She Group. This design won the Compact Submachine gun trials initiated by PLA in early 1990s, and is intended to replace earlier weapons in service with PLA, such as Type 85 silenced submachine gun. Externally resembling the new Chinese assault rifle, the QBZ-95, the Type 05 is much simpler design internally. For military use it is produced in the new Chinese 5.8mm caliber, chambered for 5.8x21 DAP92-5.8 cartridge, which is loaded with pointed, armor piercing bullets; subsonic loadings also available for use with detachable silencer. For police use and commercial export sales, Jian She Group also produced a 9mm version of the Type 05, generally known as JS submachine gun. This weapon is similar in design to its military brother but uses standard Picatinny rail instead of carrying handle, and also uses commonly available 9mm magazines compatible with famous German HK MP5 submachine gun.

Type 05 submachine gun is blowback operated weapon that fires from open bolt. Gun is made in bullpup configuration, with compact aluminium receiver and separate polymer shoulder stock / housing and pistol grip / trigger units. Safety / fire mode selector switch is located above the pistol grip, and allows for single shots, 3-round bursts and full automatic fire; charging handle is located at the top of the receiver, inside the carrying handle on Type 05 submachine guns, and on the right side on the JS 9mm submachine gun. Both weapons also fitted with automated grip safety. Despite the bullpup design, ejection is possible only to the right side, so firing from the left shoulder is seems to be impossible or art least dangerous for the shooter. Type 05 submachine guns are fitted with open sights and with proprietary scope mounts at the top of carrying handle; JS submachine guns have no open sights and fitted with Picatinny rail at the top of the receiver which can accept various types of sighting equipment. Either weapon can be equipped with detachable optional silencer. Military issue Type 05 submachine guns are fed from proprietary four-row box magazines that hold 50 rounds of 5.8mm ammunition; JS submachine guns use two-row 30-round box magazines compatible with HK MP5.

Special thanks to Timothy Yan for detailed information on this weapon. 

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Mon 19 Jul 2010  موضوع: other   لینک مطلب    
» Chang Feng submachine gun (PR China)

Chang Feng submachine gun (PR China)

Early version of Chang Feng submachine gun chambered for 5.8x21 DAP58 ammunition; this weapon had dual feed option, with primary helical magazine located at the top of the receiver and secondary pistol-type magazine located in the rear grip.

Current version of the Chang Feng submachine gun, chambered for ubiquitous 9x19 cartridge; secondary feed option with pistol magazine is omitted from design. Gun is fitted with red dot (collimating) sight.

Caliber: 9x19mm Luger/Para
Weight: 2.1 kg empty
Length (stock closed/open): 405 / 588 mm
Barrel length: 250 mm
Rate of fire: 800 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 50 rounds
Effective range: 100-150 meters

This submachine gun has been developed by Chinese Chang Feng corporation for Compact Submachine Gun trials initiated by PLA (Chinese Army) in early 1990s. This weapon has been designed by the same people who previously designed the QSZ-92 pistol, which is now in use by PLA and PAP. This design (chambered for new Chinese 5.8x21 DAP-58 round) lost the military trials because of overly complicated design, and by now is offered to Chinese law enforcement agencies, chambered for 9x19 DAP-92 (Chinese version of 9x19 Luger/Parabellum) ammunition.

The Chang Feng submachine gun is blowback operated and uses telescoped bolt which wraps around the barrel in forward position. Receiver is made from polymer and is open at the top; two pistol grips are integral to receiver. Primary feed is from helical magazine made from translucent polymer; magazine is located at the top of the weapon and is similar in design to magazines of US Calico submachine guns. Early prototypes also had secondary feed option, in the form of the QSZ-92 pistol magazine that was inserted into the rear pistol grip; it is not known how gun was fed if both magazines were inserted simultaneously. Chang Feng submachine gun is fitted with open sights, and has a mounting point for red dot or night sight just behind the rear sight block. Barrel of the weapon is threaded to accept optional detachable silencer. Shoulder stock is of telescoped (retractable) type, and is made from polymer.

Special thanks to Timothy Yan for detailed information on this weapon. 

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Mon 19 Jul 2010  موضوع: SMG   لینک مطلب    
» Type 85 submachine gun (PR China)

Type 85 submachine gun (PR China)

Type 85 submachine gun

Type 85 silenced submachine gun

  Type 85 Type 85 silenced
Caliber 7.62x25 Type 51 / TT 7.62x25 Type 64
Weight 1.9 kg empty 2.5 kg empty
Length  (stock closed/open) 444 / 628 mm 631 / 869 mm
Barrel length 210 mm n/a
Rate of fire 780 rounds per minute 800 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 30 rounds 30 rounds
Effective range 150-200 m 100-150 m









Type 85 submachine gun has been developed during early 1980s as a less expensive replacement for Type 79 submachine gun; silenced version of the same weapon was developed to replace Type 64 silenced submachine guns then in service with PLA. Both weapons were offered for export sales, as well as used by domestic police and military units.

Type 85 submachine gun is a simple blowback weapon that fires from open bolt. It uses tubular receiver made from steel; long silencer tube is also made from steel. Safety / fire mode selector lever is located at the right side of the trigger unit, above the triggerguard, and allows for single shots and full automatic fire. Type 85 silenced SMG is optimized for special 7.62x25mm type 64 ammunition with heavy, subsonic bullet, but also can fire standard 7.62mm Type 51 / 7.62x25mm TT ammunition (with increased sound level). Gun is fed using same 30-round box magazines as Type 64 SMG. Shoulder stock is made from steel and folds to the right when not in use.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Mon 19 Jul 2010  موضوع: SMG   لینک مطلب    
» Type 79 submachine gun (PR China)

Type 79 submachine gun (PR China)

Caliber: 7.62x25mm TT
Weight: 1.9 kg empty
Length (stock closed/open): 470 / 740 mm
Barrel length: n/a
Rate of fire: 500 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 20 rounds
Effective range: 100-150 meters

Type 79 submachine gun is rather unusual for its class as it is very lightweight and uses locked breech, gas operated action instead of more traditional (for SMG) blowback action. This weapon was (and probably still is) widely used by PAP (Chinese police).

Type 79 submachine gun uses gas operated, rotary bolt action with short stroke gas piston, located above the barrel. Bolt group is more or less an adaptation of the Type 56 (AK) assault rifle, with similar bolt carrier (less gas piston) and a rotary bolt with two locking lugs. Receiver is made from steel stampings. Fire mode selector / safety switch is also patterned after Type 56 (AK) assault rifle, and allows for single shots and full automatic fire. Type 79 fires from closed bolt and uses conventional hammer-fired mechanism. Box magazines hold only 20 rounds of ammunition. Shoulder stock is made from stamped steel and folds up and forward when not in use.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Mon 19 Jul 2010  موضوع: other   لینک مطلب    
» Type 64 submachine gun (PR China)

Type 64 submachine gun (PR China)

Type 64 silenced submachine gun, less magazine

Type 64 silenced submachine gun with magazine in place, left size. Note that safety / fire selector lever is duplicated on either side of weapon

Caliber: 7.62x25 Type 64
Weight: 3.4 kg empty
Length (stock closed/open): 635 / 843 mm
Barrel length: 244 mm
Rate of fire: 1300 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 30 rounds
Effective range: 150-200 meters

Type 64 submachine gun is one of the first domestically designed Chinese submachine guns. It was designed as a special purpose weapon for clandestine operations, and therefore is fitted with integral silencer (sound moderator) of significant size. Standard ammunition for Type 64 SMG is 7.62mm type 64 cartridge, which is based on 7.62x25mm Type 51 (same as Soviet 7.62x25mm TT) but is loaded with heavy, pointed bullet with subsonic velocity. Standard 7.62x25 TT ammunition also can be fired from Type 64 SMG but it will cause excessive wear to gun and its silencer. One interesting property of the Type 64 submachine gun is its extremely high cyclic rate of fire, about two times higher than the commonly accepted norm (about 400 to 600 rounds per minute). Because of such high rate of fire, this weapon was probably hard to control in full automatic mode.

Type 64 submachine gun is simple blowback weapon that fires from open bolt. Receiver is machined from steel block, with stamped top cover; silencer is also made of steel. Front part of the barrel is ported to allow some gases to escape from barrel into the silencer. Fire mode selector / safety lever is patterned after Type 56 (AK) assault rifle and allows for single shots and full automatic fire. Curved box magazine holds 30 rounds of ammunition. Shoulder stock folds down and forward when not needed. Sights are of traditional, open type; rear sight is a two-position flip-up part, with settings for 100 and 200 meters range.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Mon 19 Jul 2010  موضوع: SMG   لینک مطلب    
» FAMAE S.A.F. (Chile)

FAMAE S.A.F. (Chile)


FAMAE S.A.F. with integral silencer

FAMAE S.A.F. field stripped into main parts

Caliber: 9x19mm Luger/Para
Weight: 2.7 - 3 kg without magazine (depending on variant)
Lenght (stock closed/open): 410 / 640 mm
Barrel lenght: 198 mm
Rate of fire: 1120 - 1280 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 20 or 30 rounds
Effective range: 100-150 meters

The S.A.F. SMG was developed and is manufactured by Chilean company FAMAE. The S.A.F. design is based on SIG 540 assault rifle, designed in Swiss and manufactured in Chile by FAMAE under license from SIG.

The S.A.F. SMG is in service with Chilean Armed Forces and Police.

Technically, the S.A.F. is a recoil operated select fire gun, firing from closed bolt. The triger/hammer group and floating firing pin design is similar to SIG 540, but the bolt is of new design. The receiver is similar in design to SIG 540, and is of folding type (upper and lower receivers are assembled by two steel pins, much like the M16 receiver does). The S.A.F. has ambidextrous safety/fire selector switch with four settings - safe, single shot, 3 round bursts and full auto. S.A.F. SMGs are manufactured with side-folding or fixed polymer buttstocks. Silenced version, with folding buttstock and integral silencer is available for special forces use. S.A.F. has post front sight, ajustable wor elevation, and aperture rear sight, ajustable for windage. S.A.F. uses 20 or 30 rounds magazines made from transluscent polymer. Magazines had special studs and slots that allowed two or more magazines to be clipped together for quicker magazine change.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Mon 19 Jul 2010  موضوع: SMG   لینک مطلب    
» Mekanika URU submachine gun (Brazil)

Mekanika URU submachine gun (Brazil)

Caliber 9x19mm Luger / Parabellum
Weight 3.9 kg empty
Length (stock closed/open) 456 / 689 mm
Barrel length 175 mm
Rate of fire 750 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 30 rounds







The URU submachine gun was designed in Brazil by Olympio Vieira de Mello in 1974-75. The production of the new submachine gun was commenced at the company Mekanika Indústria e Comércio Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, in 1977. Total production of the URU submachine guns for Brazilian military and police between 1977 and 1985 is estimated at about 10 thousands guns. 

The Mekanika URU submachine gun is a simple blowback weapon which fires from open bolt. It is capable of semi- and full-automatic fire, and combination safety / fire mode selector lever is located on the left side of the trigger unit. The receiver and barrel jacket are made from steel tube, the trigger housing and magazine well / forward grip are made from steel stampings. Gun is equipped with side-folding metallic buttstock. Sights are fixed, comprising of rear aperture and front post, factory zeroed for 50 meters range.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Mon 19 Jul 2010  موضوع: SMG   لینک مطلب    
» (Belgium)FN P90 personal defense weapon / submachine gun

FN P90 personal defense weapon / submachine gun (Belgium)

FN P90 personal defense weapon / submachine gun in basic configuration, left side

FN P90 personal defense weapon / submachine gun in basic configuration, right side

FN P90 TR (triple rail version) personal defense weapon / submachine gun, with installed accessories including optical sight on top rail, flashlight on left rail, and silencer on the barrel

FN PS90 - a civilian semi-automatic only version of P90 with long barrel

Bottom view on the filed FN P90 magazine, showing position of the stored cartridges and cartridge in feed position

FN P90 partially disassembled

Caliber: 5.7x28mm SS190
Weight: 2.54 kg empty; 3 kg loaded with magazine with 50 rounds
Length: 500 mm
Barrel length: 263 mm
Rate of fire: 900 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 50 rounds
Effective range: 200 meters

The FN P90 submachine gun (SMG) was developed in the late 1980s as a personal defense weapon for the troops whose primary activities does not include small arms, such as vehicle and tank crew members, artillery crews etc. Standard pistols and submachine guns chambered for pistol rounds were proved ineffective against enemy soldiers, wearing body armor; Therefore FN designers first developed a new round with enhanced penetration, initially known as SS90. To achieve necessary high penetration while keeping recoil impulse low, FN used a small-bore approach, creating a round that looked much like the scaled down 5,56NATO round. It must be noted that similar concepts were tried in other countries, most notably in USA, several decades before FN; for example, US Army tested M1 carbines chambered for .221 Johnson Spitfire round back in late 1950s; later on, Colt produced its .22 SCAMP and 5,6x30 MARS ammunition for special SCAMP machine pistol and MARS "mini assault rifle" (a scaled-down M16 rifle) respectively. It must be noted that 5,6x30 MARS round was in a sense a direct predecessor to 5,7x28 FN SS90 round, although the latter featured slightly lighter and faster bullet. By late 1980s a concept of a small-bore, low-impulse "personal defense weapon" (PDW) with good accuracy and lethality at ranges of up to 200-250 meters was well established, although there were no weapons adopted for service yet. FN decided to follow this concept and to create its own PDW using clean sheet approach. Basic ideas used for this development, designated as "Project 9.0", included the following: minimal size and weight of weapon; large magazine capacity; complete ambidexterity; ease of use and maintenance.
To save on size and weight, FN designers put new weapon into compact and lightweight stock of bullpup layout, made of impact-resistant polymer. The high-capacity magazine also was made from semi-translucent polymer, and holds 50 rounds in two rows. To made loaded weapon as compact as possible, FN designers followed the idea of American designer Hall, and placed the magazine above the barrels, with cartridges stored in horizontal position with bullets pointing to the left. While Hall system employed a rotary feed unit, operated by the bolt, to put new cartridge in line with the barrel, FN designers incorporated a stationary helical ramp into each magazine, which rotates cartridge for 90 degrees prior to placing it into feed lips. Complete ambidexterity was achieved by using ambidextrous controls (including dual charging handles and dual back-up open sights), and bottom ejection. Finally, simplicity of aiming was achieved by use of integral reflex type collimating sight and integral laser aiming module (LAM).
Resulting weapon appeared in around 1990 as FN P90 personal defense weapon, along with improved 5,7x28 SS190 ammunition, which replaced polymer-cored bullets with heavier dual-core (steel / aluminum) bullets with better penetration against body armor. Several other types of ammunition were developed for this weapon, including tracer, subsonic ball and soft-core training ball.
First sales of P90 were made to Saudi Arabia in early 1990s; today it is believed that FN sold more than 20 000 of P90's to a wide variety of law enforcement agencies and military special operation units worldwide, including US Secret Service, Austrian Army rangers, Dutch BBE special operations forces, Belgian Army and others. Most interesting fact about adoption of P90 is that so far it has been adopted for the role, directly opposite to its original niche of "personal defense weapon". In fact, most services and agencies that adopted P90 use it for offensive roles, as a specialist or even a primary weapon for various assault teams, and other "professional small-arms users", as opposed to military personnel which primary functions do not include use of small arms.
In around 1995 FN supplemented the P90 with pistol, firing the same 5,7x28 ammunition, designated as FN Five-seveN. Recently, FN also introduced a civilian version of P90, designated as PS90 carbine. This is a self-loading weapon with longer barrel (408 mm / 16").

FN P90 personal defense weapon is blowback operated, selective-fired weapon which fires from closed bolt. The firing is controlled by a removable trigger unit with conventional hammer. A manual safety is located directly below the trigger. Magazine lies at the top of the weapon, feeding from front-to-back, with spiral ramp built into the "rear" part of the magazine. Spent cartridges are ejected straight down through the chute, which exits just behind the pistol grip. The standard sighting equipment includes a non-magnifying collimating sight with "ring and dot" illuminated aiming reticule. Back-up open sights are provided at either side of the primary collimating sight. The so-called P90 USG version is provided with two additional Picatinny rails at either side of the collimating sight base; FN also offers a version with no standard sighting equipment; user has to make its own choice of day and/or night sights and additional equipment, which can be installed on three Picatinny rails - top, left and right. This version is designated as P90 TR (triple rail). The front part of the forward handgrip on P90 is shaped as hand protector, and it can contain integral laser aiming module, which sends either visible or IR laser beam to mark the intended target. For special missions P90 can be fitted with a special silencer, which is used in conjunction with special subsonic ammunition.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Mon 19 Jul 2010  موضوع: SMG   لینک مطلب    
» Vigneron M2 submachine gun (Belgium)

Vigneron M2 submachine gun (Belgium)

Vigneron M2 submachine gun, right side

Vigneron M2 submachine gun, left side

Caliber 9x19mm Luger / Parabellum
Weight 3,28 kg empty
Length (stock closed/open) 695 / 872 mm
Barrel length 300 mm
Rate of fire 620 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 32 rounds
Effective range 100 meters

The Vigneron submachine gun was developed during early fifties by the officer of the Belgian army and produced by Belgian company Precision Liegoise SA. It was adopted by Belgian army in 1953, and saw some combat in then-Belgian Congo. Vigneron submachine gun was quite conventional in design and appearance, and not much more can be told about this weapon.

Vigneron submachine gun is blowback operated, selective fired weapon which fires from open bolt. Fire mode selector / safety switch is located on the left side of the grip, just behind the trigger. It is interesting that in full automatic mode short pull on the trigger will still, produce single shots, and only a long pull will produce full automatic fire. Additional automated safety is built into the backstrap of the pistol grip. Cocking handle is located on the left side of the receiver, and is stationary when gun is fired. Ejection port has a spring-loaded dust cover. Barrel is relatively long and has two ports just behind the front sight base, which serve as a muzzle rise compensator. Sights are fixed, with rear aperture set for 50 meters range. Stock is made from steel wire and is retractable, with several positions so shooter can adjust it to his own preferences. 

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Mon 19 Jul 2010  موضوع: other   لینک مطلب    
» Steyr AUG Para 9mm submachine gun (Austria)

Steyr AUG Para 9mm submachine gun (Austria)

Steyr AUG A1 Para 9mm submachine gun, original version

Steyr AUG A3 XS 9mm submachine gun

Data for current production Steyr AUG A3 XS submachine gun
9x19mm Luger/Parabellum
Weight 3,0 kg empty
Length 610 mm
Barrel length: 325 mm
Magazine capacity 25 rounds
Rate of fire ~700 rounds/minute

Buy Steyr tactical rifles and accessories at Impact Guns online store

The original Steyr AUG Para 9mm submachine gun is a reversible conversion of the original Steyr AUG assault rifle, intended mostly for short-range police and special operations work. This weapons combines relatively compact dimensions with very good accuracy (compared with other 9mm submachine guns), thanks to a long barrel and closed-bolt firing. If necessary, Steyr AUG 9mm submachine gun also can be fitted with silencer.

Steyr AUG Para 9mm submachine gun utilizes basic components (aluminum receiver and polymer stock of bullpup configuration) from the Steyr AUG assault rifle. The 9mm barrel is installed (original Steyr AUG assault rifles have quick detachable barrels), and a gas-operated locked bolt action is replaced with simple blowback (unlocked) bolt. Original firing system with hammer and pull-through selective trigger (short pull results in single shots, long pull - in full automatic fire) is retained, and a special magazine adapter is installed into the magazine housing. Depending on the basic version of the Steyr AUG assault rifle, which is used for conversion, 9mm version will retain its parent sighting equipment - 1.5X telescope sight in A1 version of Picatinny rail with optional open or optical sights in A2 and A3 versions.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: SMG   لینک مطلب    
» Steyr TMP (Austria)

Steyr TMP (Austria)

Caliber: 9x19mm Luger/Parabellum
Weight: 1,3 kg empty
Length: 282 mm
Rate of fire: 800-900 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 15 or 30 rounds

Steyr TMP is a modern compact SMG. It is blowback operated, locked breech design, with rotating barrel. This mean that after the shot bolt with barrel locked to it are moving backward for some 4 millimeters. Then, the barrel rotates clockwise slightly, and thus unlocks the bolt. Rotaton controls via small cam on the barrel that follows the spiral groove inside the receiver.
Both upper and lower receiver are made from polymer. TMP has no stock and could be fired only from off-hand position.
Safeties featured automatic off-battery safety, drop safety and the manual safety switch.
TMP is reported as a very controllable and comfortable to fire firearm.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: SMG   لینک مطلب    
» Steyr MPi 69 and MPi 81 submachine gun (Austria)

Steyr MPi 69 and MPi 81 submachine gun (Austria)

Steyr MPi 69 submachine gun

Steyr MPi 81 submachine gun; note added cocking handle that replaced sliding front sling swivel of MPi 69

Caliber: 9x19mm Luger/Para
Weight: 3.13 kg empty
Length (stock closed/open): 465 / 670 mm
Barrel length: 260 mm
Rate of fire: 550 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 25 or 32 rounds
Effective range: 100-150 meters

The Steyr MPi 69 submachine gun was developed by Austrian company Steyr-Daimler-Puch during early sixties and put into production; in around 1981 the basic design was slightly improved with addition of a conventional bolt cocking handle. The updated version was designated as MPi 81 and was manufactured until about mid-1990s. Both versions are in use by several police and military forces in Europe and elsewhere.

Steyr MPi 69 submachine gun is a blowback operated, selective fire weapon that fires from open bolt. The receiver is made from stamped steel, the receiver cover and pistol grip are made from nylon. The bolt is of "wrap-around" type (most of its weight is located in front of the breech face, around the barrel) and had a fixed firing pin. The cocking handle on MPi 69 is combined with front sling swivel; to cock the bolt, shooter has to pull the front part of the sling rearward and then release it. On MPi 81 submachine gun, this system is replace by conventional bolt cocking handle. Both MPi 69 and MPi 81 had cross-bolt button manual safety, located above the trigger. The fire mode selection mechanism is a combination of the trigger pull and safety button. If the safety button is pushed all the way to the left, the short pull on the trigger will produce single shots, and the long pull will produce burst firing. If the safety button will be left in mid-way position, only single shots will be possible. If the safety is all the way to the right, the gun is set to safe and will not fire.
Sights consist of protected front and flip-up type rear. The shoulder stock is retractable and made from steel wire.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: SMG   لینک مطلب    
» Steyr - Solothurn S1-100 / MP-34 submachine gun (Switzerland / Austria)

Steyr - Solothurn S1-100 / MP-34 submachine gun (Switzerland / Austria)

Steyr MP-34 submachine gun, left side

Steyr MP-34 submachine gun, right side

Steyr MP-34 partially disassembled

Drawing from original patent, covering S1-100 integral magazine loading device

Caliber 9x19mm Luger / Parabellum, 9x23 Steyr, 9x25 Mauser Export
Weight 4,25 kg empty
Length 850 mm
Barrel length 200 mm
Rate of fire 400-500 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 32 rounds
Effective range 150-200 meters

The story of this weapon start in around 1919, when German arms-making company Rheinmetall produced a prototype submachine gun designated MP.19. This weapon was developed by Lous Stange to same specifications as Schmeisser's MP.18/I, but MP.19 came too late to see any action during WW1. After the end of WW1, Germany was severely limited in design and production of small arms by treaty of Versailles. When Hitler came into power, German military-oriented companies began to move the R&D outside of Germany to avoid treaty limitations. In 1929, Rheinmetall purchased the small Swiss-based company Wafenfabrik Solothurn, which was used to finalize some Rheinmetall small arms which were developed under secrecy in Germany. One of those weapons was an improved version of MP.19 submachine gun, which was announced by Waffenfabrik Solothurn under company index "S1-100". This was an excellent weapon, reliable, controllable and accurate, but Solothurn company lacked production capabilities. To make guns on industrial scale, Solothurn teamed with famous Austrian gun-making company Waffenfabrik Steyr, and formed trade company Steyr-Solothurn Waffen AG in Zurich, Switzerland. This company sold weapons designed by Rheinmetall and Solothurn and made by Steyr, and S1-100 submachine gun was among first products of this international conglomerated. In the 1930 Austrian police adopts the S1-100 as Steyr MP.30, chambered for standard Austrian 9x23 Steyr pistol cartridge. It was also exported to Chile, Bolivia, Uruguay and El Salvador; it also was sold in limited numbers to China, in 7,63x25 Mauser caliber. Portugal adopted the S1-100 in 7,65x22 Luger caliber in 1938, and in 1942 purchased more S1-100's from Steyr but this time in 9x19 Luger. For South American markets, Steyr produced version of S1-100 in .45ACP caliber; this version was distinguished by additional pistol grip under the forearm. Austrian army adopted the S1-100 as Steyr MP.34, chambered for powerful 9x25 Mauser ammunition. When Hitler's Germany occupied Austria in 1938, it quickly consumed most of Austrian MP.30's and MP.34's, and after rebarreling to 9x19 ammunition these weapons were issued to German troops as MP.34(ö). Production of Steyr-Solothurn submachine guns has ceased in around 1940, when, under German administration, it was replaced in production at Steyr by much simpler and less expensive MP-40 submachine gun of German design. It must be noted that S1-100 was one of the finest submachine guns made prior to WW2, and probably one of most expensive.

Steyr-Solothurn S1-100 submachine gun was blowback operated, selective-fired weapon which fired from open bolt. Unlike most other submachine guns, the return spring was located in the buttstock and was linked to bolt via long push-rod, pivotally attached to the rear of the bolt. The basic action of the gun was accessible through the top cover, which was hinged at the front and opened up and forward to expose bolt and trigger unit below it. The fire mode selector was made in the form of a sliding switch, located at the left side of the stock. Early guns had Schmeisser-style bolt-locking safety in the form of hook-shaped cut which was used to engage the bolt handle when bolt was cocked. Later on, additional manual safety was added to the top cover, in front of the rear sight. this safety locked bolt either in cocked or closed position. The feed was from left side, with magazine housing slightly canted forward for more positive feeding Ejection was to the right. The magazine housing had an unusual magazine filler device, with slots for magazine at the bottom and for stripper clip - at the top. removed magazine was inserted into this device from the bottom, and then shooter placed stripper clips into the top of device and pushed cartridges down into magazine. Four standard 8-round clips were required to fill the magazine.
All S1-100 guns were fitted with wooden stock with semi-pistol grip. Barrel was enclosed into perforated jacket, which had provisions for mounting a bayonet. Sights included hooded front and tangent type rear, marked from 100 to 500 meters. One most unusual accessory, which was briefly advertised for S1-100 during mid-1930s, was a compact machine-gun type tripod, which was to provide additional stability for weapon when firing from ground. It seems that this tripod was never made in quantity.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: other   لینک مطلب    
» F1 submachine gun (Australia)

F1 submachine gun (Australia)

Caliber: 9x19mm Luger/Para
Weight: 3.26 kg unloaded
Length: 715 mm
Barrel length: 203 mm
Rate of fire: 600 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 34 rounds
Effective range: 100-200 meters

The F1 submachine gun has been designed at the Australian Lithgow Small Arms Factory by 1962. Originally known as X-3 prototype, it appeared in 1962 as possible replacement for obsolete and aging Owen submachine guns. It was adopted as F1 by mid-sixties, and served well until late eighties, when it was officially replaced by the 5.56mm F88 assault rifle, a license-made version of Steyr AUG. F1 was simple, reliable and popular weapon.

F1 submachine gun is blowback operated, selective fired weapon which fires from open bolt. It uses tubular receiver with top-mounted magazine. Cocking handle is set at the left side of weapon, and does not reciprocate when gun is fired. Its slot is covered by sliding dust cover. Weapon is made in so-called in-line layout, and the front of the buttstock slides over the rear of the receiver, and is fixed there by special catch. For disassembly, gun is unloaded, then catch is pressed and buttstock pulled off the receiver toward the rear; then, bolt and return spring are removed. Sights are of fixed type, and due to top-mounted magazine are offset to the left. Rear sight is made folding for more comfortable carry. Unlike many other submachine guns, F1 can be fitted with standard rifle bayonet, which is attached to the right of the perforated barrel jacket.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: other   لینک مطلب    
» Owen machine carbine / submachine gun (Australia)

Owen machine carbine / submachine gun (Australia)

Owen 32ACP prototype submachine gun (1940)

Owen .45ACP prototype submachine gun (1941)

Owen Mk.1-43 submachine gun in camouflage paint

Owen Mk.1-42 submachine gun, field stripped

Caliber: 9x19mm Luger/Para
Weight: 4.22 kg unloaded
Length: 813 mm
Barrel length: 247 mm
Rate of fire: 700 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 32 rounds
Effective range: 100-200 meters

Evelyn Owen, an Australian, developed his first automatic weapon, chambered for .22LR cartridge, by 1939, and offered it to Australian army. This weapon was a strange-looking revolver-type contraption with fixed "cylinder" instead of magazine, and thumb-operated trigger. However, by 1940 Owen produced its next design, in somewhat more potent (but still relatively mild) .32ACP / 7.65x17 Browning cartridge. This was more "usual" weapon, with traditional trigger, dual pistol grips and detachable box magazine, inserted under the receiver and inclined rearward and to the left. By 1941, Owen produced several more prototypes, chambered in .45ACP, 9mm Luger and even .38 Special revolver cartridges; this work was done at Lysaghts Newcastle Works in New South Wales, Australia. 9mm prototype, made by Lysaghts, was tested against Thompson and Sten submachine guns, and found superior to both. Adopted in 1942, this gun was manufactured until 1945 in three basic versions, Mark 1-42, Mark 1-43 (or Mark 1 Wood butt), and Mark 2. About 45 000 Owen SMGs were made by Lysaghts, and these remained in service with Australian forces until 1960s, through World War 2, Korean and Vietnam wars. In general, these weapons were well liked by soldiers due to their robustness, reliability and simplicity. The only downside of Owen SMG was its somewhat heavy weight.

Owen submachine guns are blowback operated, top-fed weapons that fired from open bolt. Receiver is of tubular shape, with the bolt body separated from the cocking handle by the small bulkhead inside. This precluded the dirt to enter the receiver area through the cocking handle slot, but also required the barrel to be made removable, as the bolt and return spring were pulled forward out of receiver. Barrel was held in place by simple latch, located at the front of the receiver, ahead of the magazine housing. Muzzle was equipped with recoil compensator. Pistol grips were made from wood, detachable buttstock was made of steel wire on Mk.1-42 Owens and from wood on later models. Due to the top mounted magazine, fixed sights were offset to the left.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: other   لینک مطلب    
» AUSTEN submachine gun (Australia)

AUSTEN submachine gun (Australia)

AUSTEN submachine gun

Caliber 9x19mm Luger / Parabellum
Weight 3.98 kg
Length (stock closed/open) 552 / 732 mm
Barrel length 198 mm
Rate of fire 500 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 30 rounds

AUSTEN submachine gun (machine carbine in contemporary terminology) was an urgent development, carried in Australia during earlier stages of World War 2 in the anticipation of possible Japanese invasion. It was based on British STEN submachine gun (the AUSTEN means Australian STEN), although some features (i.e. return spring guide, pistol grip and underfolding stock) were copied from the German MP40. About 20 thousands of AUSTEN Mk.1 submachine guns were manufactured during the WW2, but it was unable to achieve popularity of its main domestic rival, the Owen submachine gun, as the Owen was much more reliable, especially under the extreme environmental conditions of jungle warfare.

The AUSTEN submachine gun is a simple blowback weapon, firing from open bolt in semi-automatic or full automatic modes. The return spring is located insite the telescoping tubular guide, as in the German MP40. The fire mode selector is located on the right side of the trigger housing, above the trigger guard. The STEN-type box magazine is inserted horizontally from the left, ejection is to the right. AUSTEN submachine gun is equipped with two pistol grips and an underfolding metallic buttstock. The struts of the buttstock are hollow and hold inside a small screwdriver and a cleaning rod. The sights are of simple design, and not adjustable for range.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: other   لینک مطلب    
» K6-92 / Borz submachine gun (Armenia / Russia)

K6-92 / Borz submachine gun (Armenia / Russia)

K6-92 / Borz submachine gun

Caliber 9x18 Makarov PM
Weight 1.96 kg
Length (stock closed/open) 370 / 700 mm
Barrel length 150 mm
Rate of fire ? rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 17, 25 or 30 rounds

The K6-92 submachine gun was developed during early 1990s in the republic of Armenia, which gained its independence in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union. At the time Armenia was engaged in the local conflict with Azerbaijan (another ex-USSR republic), and was in desperate need for small arms. The submachine gun is one of the simplest automatic arms to design and manufacture, so Armenian engineers quickly developed a straightforward weapon, which can be easily manufactured by almost any mechanical workshop.
Later on, more than few K6-92 submachine guns made its way through the borders into the Chechen republic, the most turbulent part of the Russia. During mid-1990s Chechnya was heavily infested with separatists, Islamic extremists and other kinds of bandits, which found submachine guns to be convenient weapons for urban fighting. Separatist Chechen government attempted to produce a "local" copy of the K6-92 at one of machine-building factories in the city of Groznyj, but very few were made there due to production problems and quality issues. Chechen-made copies of the K6-92 submachine gun are usually referred to as "Borz" (which means "wolf" in Chechen language). It also must be noted, however, that underground workshops, run by separatist forces, also made some "generic" crudely made submachine guns, generally known under the same name (Borz). These "homemade" submachine guns can be distinguished by tubular receiver and extremely poor fit and finish. Overall, the K6-92 submachine guns are reported as crude arms, suitable mostly for close combat. Over last two decades, plenty of these submachine guns turned up in Russia and other former USSR states during various crimes of violence and illegal arms trafficking.

The K6-92 submachine gun is a simple blowback operated weapon  that fires from open bolt. Receiver is made from steel stampings, welded together. Cocking handle is located at the top, safety / fire mode selector is located at the left side of the gun, above the trigger guard. Gun can be fired in single shots or in full automatic. It is fitted with plastic pistol grip and a top-folding metallic buttstock.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: other   لینک مطلب    
» Halcon ML-63 submachine gun (Argentine)

Halcon ML-63 submachine gun (Argentine)

Halcon ML-63 submachine gun

Caliber 9x19mm Luger / Parabellum
Weight 3.6 kg
Length (stock closed/open) 500 / 690 mm
Barrel length 170 mm
Rate of fire 600 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 20 or 42 rounds

Halcon ML-63 submachine gun (Pistola ametralladora Halcón, Modelo Liviano 1963) was developed in 1963 by Argentinean arms-making company Fabrica de Armas Halcon. This weapon saw extensive use by Argentinean armed forces during conflict with Great Britain over Falkland islands. It was also used by Argentinean police until early 1990s.

Halcon ML-63 submachine gun is a simple blowback weapon that fires from closed bolt.It has a sliding "hammer' or striker, which is cocked when bolt closes, and is released when trigger is pressed. It has dual trigger setup, which allows to fire either single shots (front trigger) or full automatic (rear trigger). Charging handle is located on the right side and moves along with the bolt. Weapon is manufactured mostly from steel stampings, and fitted with plain barrel that has a massive muzzle compensator. Magazine housing is extended to provide comfortable forward grip for non-firing hand.  Halcon ML-63 submachine gun was usually equipped with simple telescoping buttstock, made of steel wire, although it can be replaced with detachable fixed wooden butt. Standard iron sights feature L-shaped flip-up rear sight with settings for 50 and 100 meters range.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: other   لینک مطلب    
» Halcon M/943 submachine gun (Argentine)

Halcon M/943 submachine gun (Argentine)

Halcon M/943 submachine gun

Caliber .45ACP
Weight 4.05 kg
Length 850 mm
Barrel length 292 mm
Rate of fire 700 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 17 or 30 rounds

Halcon M/943 submachine gun (Pistola ametralladora Halcón, modelo 1943) was developed by Argentinean arms-making company Fabrica de Armas Halcon. It was manufactured for Argentinean army and police; lighter and more compact variant of the same weapon was manufactured as Halcon M/946 for Argentinean Air Forces (Carabina ametralladora Halcón, modelo Aeronáutica Argentina 1946). This weapon is rarely encountered outside of South America.

The Halcon M/943 submachine gun is a simple blowback weapon that fires from open bolt. Weapon can fire single shots and full automatic, thanks to the fire mode selector, located on the left side above the trigger. Charging handle is also located on the left side and does not move when gun is fired. Halcon M/943 submachine gun is fitted with heavily finned barrel and a massive muzzle compensator, and has a wooden pistol grip / buttstock of peculiar shape. The Halcon M/946 submachine gun wass similar in design except that it had a shorter barrel and a MP40-type underfolding buttstock


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: other   لینک مطلب    
» History of military helmets

History of military helmets

A "Brodie helmet" used by British Commonwealth officers in both World Wars and by US forces mainly in the First.

Helmets are known to have been worn by Ancient Greeks and Romans, throughout the middle Ages, and up to the end of the 1600s by many combatants. At that time, they were purely military equipment, protecting the head from blows, swords, arrows, (low-velocity) musket fire and similar risks. Some helmets had a sort of extension made of leather strips called pteruges to protect the neck, particularly common in the Middle East.

Helmets were first made of boar's tusk and leather, then bronze and iron during the Bronze and Iron Ages, but soon came to be made entirely from forged steel in many societies after about 950A.D. Military use of helmets declined after 1670, and rifled firearms ended their use by foot soldiers after 1700. By the 18th century cavalry units, who protected their bodies with steel cuirasses, frequently wore metal skull protectors under their hats, called "secrets".

The Napoleonic era saw ornate cavalry helmets reintroduced for cuirassiers and dragoons in some armies; they continued to be used by French forces during World War I as late as 1915, when they were replaced by the new French Adrian helmet. Ornate helmets were soon replaced by functional steel helmets by warring nations.

The Prussian Pickelhaube spiked helmet offered almost no protection from the heavy artillery used during World War I, and in 1916 was replaced by the German steel helmet, or Stahlhelm. World War I and its increased use of heavy artillery had renewed the need for steel helmets, which were quickly introduced by all the combatant nations for their foot soldiers. In the 20th century steel helmets offered protection for the head from shrapnel and spent, or glancing, bullets.

Today's armed services often use high-quality helmets made of ballistic materials such as Kevlar, which have excellent bullet and fragment stopping power. Some helmets also have good non-ballistic protective qualities to protect the wearer from non-ballistic injuries, such as concussive shock waves from explosions, motor vehicle incidents, and falls. Military helmets can be worn with radio earmuffs, and other equipment such as night vision goggles can be added. Military helmets are often worn with a removable cotton-polyester helmet cover, which allows the user to change the pattern of the camouflage (e.g., from dark green forest camouflage to tan-coloured desert camouflage).


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» Smoke grenadeSmoke grenade

Smoke grenadeSmoke grenade

Smoke grenades are canister-type grenades used as ground-to-ground or ground-to-air signaling devices, target or landing zone marking devices, or a screening devices for unit movements. Smoke grenades are normally considered non lethal, although incorrect use may cause injury or fatality. The body consists of a sheet steel cylinder with a few emission holes on top and at the bottom to allow smoke release when the grenade is ignited. The filler consists of 250 to 350 grams of colored (red, green, orange, gray, yellow, blue, white, black, or violet) smoke composition (mostly potassium chlorate, lactose and a dye). The reaction is exothermic and grenade casings often will remain scalding hot for some time even after the grenade is no longer emitting smoke.

Another type of smoke grenades are the bursting kind. These are filled with white phosphorus (WP), which is spread by explosive action. White phosphorus catches fire in the presence of air, and burns with a brilliant yellow flame, while producing copious amounts of white smoke (phosphorus pent oxide). These double as incendiary grenades, and a variant of these are also launched from infantry-portable or armored fighting vehicle-mounted grenade launchers. Users must also be wary of wind direction when using smoke grenades.

Smoke grenades should not be confused with smoke bombs, which are typically started with an external fuse rather than a pin. Smoke grenades often cost much more at around $40 USD compared to smoke bombs, which can often cost just a few cents. Smoke grenades generally emit a far larger amount of smoke than smoke bombs that are sold as fireworks.

Diagram and cross section of an M18 smoke grenade.

A violet smoke grenade being used during a military training exercise.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: bomb   لینک مطلب    
» Hand grenadeHand grenade

Hand grenade

"Grenade" redirects here. For other uses, see Grenade (disambiguation

A hand grenade is an anti-personnel weapon that explodes a short time after release. The French military term grenade probably comes from the shape of the pomegranate fruit, which is also called grenade in French.

Grenadiers were originally soldiers who specialized in throwing grenades. Today, some grenades are fired from rifles or from purpose-designed grenade launchers.

Russian F1 grenade

An M67 grenade, used primarily by the U.S. and Canadian military

36M Mills bomb dating from 1942


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: bomb   لینک مطلب    
» For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation).

For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation).

Top: A Baker rifle, a 19th century rifle
Middle: A
Springfield rifle, an early 20th century bolt-action rifle
Bottom: A
SG 550 rifle, a modern assault rifle

Latest rifles of year 1905

A rifle is a firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder, with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the barrel walls. The raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile (for small arms usage, called a bullet), imparting spin around an axis corresponding to the orientation of the weapon. When the projectile leaves the barrel, the conservation of angular momentum improves accuracy and range, in the same way that a properly thrown American football or rugby ball behaves. The word "rifle" originally referred to the grooving, and a rifle was called a "rifled gun." Rifles are used in warfare, hunting and shooting sports.

Typically, a bullet is propelled by the contained deflagration of an explosive compound (originally black powder, later cordite, and now nitrocellulose), although other means such as compressed air are used in air rifles, which are popular for vermin control, hunting small game, formal target shooting and casual shooting ("plinking").

In most armed forces the term "gun" is incorrect when referring to small arms; in the military, the word "gun" means an artillery piece or crew-served machine gun. Furthermore, in many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing, even if the weapon is not rifled or does not fire solid projectiles. (E.g. a "laser rifle")

Rifles traditionally fired a single projectile with each pull of the trigger. Modern assault rifles are capable of firing in bursts or fully automatic modes, and thus overlap somewhat with machine guns. In fact, many light machine guns (such as the Russian RPK) are adaptations of existing assault rifle designs. Generally, the difference between an automatic rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight and feed system; rifles, with their relatively light components (which overheat quickly) and small magazines, are incapable of sustained automatic fire in the way that machine guns are. While machine guns may require more than one operator, the rifle is an individual weapon.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: rifles   لینک مطلب    
» For other uses, see Machine gun (disambiguation).

For other uses, see Machine gun (disambiguation).

A .50 caliber M2 machine gun: John Browning's design has been one of the longest serving and most successful machine gun designs

A machine gun is a full automatic mounted or portable firearm, usually designed to fire bullets in quick succession from an ammunition belt or large-capacity magazine, typically at a rate of several hundred rounds per minute. The first design/invention of the machine gun was by Leonardo Da Vinci who produced a diagram of an eight barreled, hand cranked machine gun. This weapon was designed to be fired from a fixed mount and would probably not have been personnel portable under battle conditions.

In United States gun law, machine gun is a term of art for any full automatic firearm, and also for any component or part that will modify an existing firearm into a full automatic firearm.

Machine guns are generally categorized as sub-machine guns, machine guns, or auto cannons. Sub-machine guns are designed to be portable automatic weapons for personal defense or short range combat, and are intended to be fired while being hand held. Submachine guns use small pistol caliber rounds. A proper machine gun is often portable to a certain degree, but is generally used when mounted on a stand or fired from the ground on a bipod. Light machine guns can be fired hand held like a rifle, but the gun is more effective when fired from a prone position. Proper machine guns use larger caliber rifle rounds. The difference between machine guns and auto cannons is based on caliber, with auto cannons using calibers larger than 16 mm.

Another factor is whether the gun fires conventional rounds or explosive rounds. Guns firing large-caliber explosive rounds are generally considered either auto cannons or automatic grenade launchers ("grenade machine guns"). By contrast to the other two categories (sub-machine guns and auto cannons), machine guns (like rifles) tend to share a very high ratio of barrel length to caliber (a long barrel for a small caliber); indeed, a true machine gun is essentially a full automatic rifle, and the boundaries between the two are often blurred. Often, the criterion for a machine gun as opposed to an automatic rifle is considered to be the presence of a quick change barrel or other cooling system (see below).


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: machine guns   لینک مطلب    
» 20th century

20th century

World War I and World War II had significant impacts on the design and use of the rifle. By the time of the First World War, the rifle had already been established as the stock weapon for modern infantry.

Until the early 20th century rifles tended to be very long; an 1890 Martini-Henry was almost 2 m (6 ft) in length with a fixed bayonet. The demand for more compact weapons for cavalrymen led to the carbine, or shortened rifle.

The advent of massed, rapid firepower and of the machine gun and the rifled artillery piece was so quick as to outstrip the development of any way to attack a trench defended by riflemen and machine gunners. The carnage of World War I was perhaps the greatest vindication and vilification of the rifle as a military weapon.

Experience in World War I led German military researchers to conclude that long-range aimed fire was less significant at typical battle ranges of 300 m. As mechanisms became smaller, lighter and more reliable, semi-automatic rifles, including the M1 Garand, appeared. World War II saw the first mass-fielding of such rifles, which culminated in the Sturmgewehr 44, the first assault rifle and one of the most significant developments of 20th century small-arms.

During and after World War II it became accepted that most infantry engagements occur at ranges of less than 300 m; the range and power of the large rifles was "overkill"; and the weapons were heavier than the ideal. This led to Germany's development of the 7.92 x 33 mm Kurz (short) round, the Karabiner 98, the MKb-42, and ultimately, the assault rifle. Today, an infantryman's rifle is optimised for ranges of 300 m or less, and soldiers are trained to deliver individual rounds or bursts of fire within these distances. The United States Marine Corps, however, continues to train all of its riflemen to accurately engage targets out to 500m. Typically, the application of accurate, long-range fire is the domain of the sniper in warfare, and of enthusiastic target shooters in peacetime. The modern sniper rifle is usually capable of accuracy better than 0.3 mrad at 100 yards (1 arc minute).

Modern hunting rifle.

By contrast, civilian rifle design has not significantly advanced since the early part of the 20th century. Modern hunting rifles have fiberglass and carbon fiber stocks and more advanced recoil pads, but are fundamentally the same as infantry rifles from 1910. Many modern sniper rifles can trace their ancestry back for well over a century, and the Russian 7.62 x 54 mm cartridge, as used in the front-line Dragunov Sniper Rifle (SVD), dates from 1891.

Many video games include rifles in their weaponry arsenals, beginning with the Magnavox Odyssey Shooting Gallery game accessory, created in 1968.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sun 18 Jul 2010  موضوع: rifles   لینک مطلب    
» Shotgun


This article is about the firearm. For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation).

A pump-action Remington 870, two semi-automatic Remington 1100 shotguns, 20 boxes of shotgun shells, a clay trap, and three boxes of clay pigeons.

A shotgun (also known as a scattergun and pepper gun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug. Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5.5 mm (.22 inch) bore up to 5 cm (2 inch) bore, and in a range of firearm operating mechanisms, including breech loading, single-barreled, double or Combination gun, pump-action, bolt-, and lever-action, semi-automatic, and even fully-automatic variants.

A shotgun is generally a smoothbore firearm, which means that the inside of the barrel is not rifled. Preceding smoothbore firearms, such as the musket, were widely used by armies in the 18th century. The direct ancestor to the shotgun, the blunderbuss, was also used in a similar variety of roles from self defence to riot control. It was often used by cavalry troops due to its generally shorter length and ease of use, as well as by coachmen for its substantial power. However, in the 19th century, these weapons were largely replaced on the battlefield with breechloading rifled firearms, which were more accurate over longer ranges. The military value of shotguns was rediscovered in the First World War, when American forces used 12-gauge pump action shotguns in close-quarters trench fighting to great effect. Since then, it has been used in a variety of roles in civilian, law enforcement, and military applications.

The shot pellets from a shotgun spread upon leaving the barrel, and the power of the burning charge is divided among the pellets, which means that the energy of any one ball of shot is fairly low. In a hunting context, this makes shotguns useful primarily for hunting birds and other small game. However, in a military or law enforcement context, the large number of projectiles makes the shotgun useful as a close quarter's combat weapon or a defensive weapon. Shotguns are also used for target shooting sports such as skeet, trap, and sporting clays. These involve shooting clay disks, known as clay pigeons, thrown in various ways.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: shotguns   لینک مطلب    
» Semi-automatic


A Browning A-5 semi-automatic shotgun

Gas, inertia, or recoil operated actions are other popular methods of increasing the rate of fire of a shotgun; these are generally referred to as autoloaders or semi-automatics. Instead of having the action manually operated by a pump or lever, the action automatically cycles each time the shotgun is fired, ejecting the spent shell and reloading a fresh one into the chamber. The first successful semi-automatic shotgun was John Browning's Auto-5, first produced by Fabrique Nationale beginning in 1902. Other well-known examples include the Remington 1100, Benelli M1, and Saiga-12.

Some, such as the Fran chi SPAS-12 and Benelli M3, are capable of switching between semi-automatic and pump action. These are popular for two reasons; first, some jurisdictions forbid the use of semi-automatic actions for hunting, and second, lower-powered rounds, like "reduced-recoil" buckshot shells and many less lethal cartridges, have insufficient power to reliably cycle a semi-automatic shotgun.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: shotguns   لینک مطلب    
» Lever-action


A modern reproduction of the Winchester M1887 lever-action shotgun

Early attempts at repeating shotguns invariably centered around either bolt-or lever-action designs, drawing inspiration from contemporary repeating rifles, with the earliest successful repeating shotgun being the lever-action Winchester M1887, designed by John Browning at the behest of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company.

Lever shotguns, while less common, were popular in the late 1800s with the Winchester Model 1887 and Model 1901 being prime examples. Initially very popular, demand waned after the introduction of pump-action shotguns at the turn of the century, and production was eventually discontinued in 1920.

One major issue with lever-actions (and to a lesser extent pump-action) was that early shotgun shells were often made of paper or similar fragile materials (modern hulls are plastic or metal). As a result the loading of shells, or working of the action of the shotgun, could often result in cartridges getting crushed and becoming unusable or even damaging the gun.

Lever shotguns have seen a return to the gun market in recent years, however, with Winchester producing the Model 9410 (chambering the .410 gauge shotgun shell and using the action of the Winchester Model 94 series lever-action rifle, hence the name), and a handful of other firearm manufacturers (primarily Norinco of China and ADI Ltd. of Australia) producing versions of the Winchester Model 1887/1901 designed for modern 12-gauge smokeless shot shells with more durable plastic casings. There has been a notable uptick in lever-action shotgun sales in Australia since 1997, when pump-actions were effectively outlawed.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: shotguns   لینک مطلب    
» Legal issues

Legal issues

A homemade Lupara

Globally, shotguns are generally not as heavily regulated as rifles or handguns, likely because they lack the range of rifles and are not easily concealable as handguns are; thus, they are perceived as a lesser threat by legislative authorities. The one exception is a sawed-off shotgun, especially a Lupara, as it is more easily concealed than a normal shotgun.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: shotguns   لینک مطلب    
» Gauge


Soldier armed with a shotgun

Main article: Gauge (bore diameter)

The caliber of shotguns is measured in terms of gauge (U.S.) or bore (U.K.). The gauge number is the determined by the weight, in fractions of a pound, of a solid sphere of lead with a diameter equal to the inside diameter of the barrel. So a 10 gauge shotgun nominally should have an inside diameter equal to that of a sphere made from one-tenth of a pound of lead. By far the most common gauges are 12 (0.729 in, 18.5 mm diameter) and 20 (0.614 in, 15.6 mm), although .410 (= 67), 32, 28, 24, 16, and 10 (19.7 mm) gauge and 9 mm (.355 in.) and .22 (5.5 mm) rimfire calibres have also been produced. Larger gauges, too powerful to shoulder, have been built but were generally affixed to small boats and referred to as punt guns. These were used for commercial water fowl hunting, to kill large numbers of birds resting on the water. Although relatively rare, single and double derringers have also been produced that are capable of firing either .45 (Long) Colt or .410 shotgun shells from the same chamber; they are commonly known as 'snake guns', and are popular among some outdoorsmen in the South and Southwest regions of the United States. There are also some revolvers, such as the Taurus Judge, that are capable of shooting the .45LC/.410 rounds; but as with derringers, these are handguns that shoot .410 shotgun shells, and are not necessarily considered shotguns.

The .410 bore (10.4 mm) is unusual, being measured in inches, and would be approximately 67 "real" gauge, though its short hull versions are nominally called 36 gauge in Europe. It uses a relatively small charge of shot. It is used for hunting and for skeet. Because of its very light recoil (approx 10 N), it is often used as a beginners gun. However, the small charge and typically tight choke make it more difficult to hit targets. It is also frequently used by expert shooters because of the difficulty, especially in expensive side by side and over/under models for hunting small bird game such as quail and doves. Inexpensive bolt-action .410 shotguns are a very common first hunting shotgun among young pre-teen hunters, as they are used mostly for hunting squirrels, while additionally teaching bolt-action manipulation skills that will transfer easily later to adult-sized hunting rifles. Most of these young hunters move up to a 20-gauge within a few years, and to 12 gauge shotguns and full-size hunting rifles by their late teens. Still, many who are particularly recoil-averse choose to stay with 20-gauge shotguns all their adult life, as it is a very suitable gauge for many popular hunting uses.

A recent innovation is the back-boring of barrels, in which the barrels are bored out slightly larger than their actual gauge. This reduces the compression forces on the shot when it transitions from the chamber to the barrel. This leads to a slight reduction in perceived recoil, and an improvement in shot pattern due to reduced deformation of the shot.


Most shotguns are used to fire "a number of ball shot", in addition to slugs and sabots. The ball shot or pellets is for the most part made of lead but this has been partially replaced by bismuth, steel, tungsten-iron, tungsten-nickel-iron and even tungsten polymer loads. Non-toxic loads are required by Federal law for waterfowl hunting in the US, as the shot may be ingested by the waterfowl, which some authorities believe can lead to health problems due to the lead exposure. Shot is termed either birdshot or buckshot depending on the shot size. Informally, birdshot pellets have a diameter smaller than 5 mm (0.20 inches) and buckshot are larger than that. Pellet size is indicated by a number, for bird shot this ranges from the smallest 12 (1.2 mm, 0.05 in) to 2 (3.8 mm, 0.15 in) and then BB (4.6 mm, 0.18 in).

For buckshot the numbers usually start at 4 (6.1 mm, 0.24 in) and go down to 1, 0, 00 ("double aught"), 000, and finally 0000 (9.7 mm, .38 in). A different informal distinction is that "bird shot" pellets are small enough that they can be measured into the cartridge by weight, and simply poured in, whereas "buckshot" pellets are so large they must be stacked inside the cartridge in a fixed geometric arrangement in order to fit. The diameter in hundredths of an inch of bird shot sizes from #9 to #1 can be obtained by subtracting the shot size from 17. Thus, #4 bird shot is 17 - 4 = 13 = 0.13 inches (3.3 mm) in diameter. Different terminology is used outside the United States. In England and Australia, for example, 00 buckshot cartridges are commonly referred to as "S.G." (small game) cartridges.

Table of American Standard Birdshot Size



Pellets/10 g Lead

Pellets/10 g Steel


5.84 mm (.230")




5.59 mm (.220")




5.33 mm (.210")




5.08 mm (.200")




4.83 mm (.190")




4.57 mm (.180")




4.32 mm (.170")




4.06 mm (.160")




3.81 mm (.150")




3.56 mm (.140")




3.30 mm (.130")




3.05 mm (.120")




2.79 mm (.110")




2.41 mm (.100")




2.29 mm (.090")




2.03 mm (.080")




Table of Buckshot Size



Pellets/10 g Lead

000 or LG ("triple-aught")

9.1 mm (.36")


00 ("double-aught")

8.4 mm (.33")


0 or SG("one-aught")

8.1 mm (.32")



7.9 mm (.31")



7.6 mm (.30")



6.9 mm (.27")



6.4 mm (.25")



6.1 mm (.24")


Pattern and choke

Shot, small and round and delivered without spin, is ballistically inefficient. As the shot leaves the barrel it begins to disperse in the air. The resulting cloud of pellets is known as the shot pattern, or shotgun shot spread. The ideal pattern would be a circle with an even distribution of shot throughout, with a density sufficient to ensure enough pellets will intersect the target to achieve the desired result, such as a kill when hunting or a break when shooting clay targets. In reality the pattern is closer to a Gaussian, or normal distribution, with a higher density in the center that tapers off at the edges. Patterns are usually measured by firing at a 30 inch (76 cm) diameter circle on a large sheet of paper placed at varying distances. The hits inside the circle are counted, and compared to the total number of pellets, and the density of the pattern inside the circle is examined. An "ideal" pattern would put nearly 100% of the pellets in the circle and would have no voids—any region where a target silhouette will fit and not cover 3 or more holes is considered a potential problem.

A constriction in the end of the barrel known as the choke is used to tailor the pattern for different purposes. Chokes may either be formed as part of the barrel at the time of manufacture, by squeezing the end of the bore down over a mandrel, or by threading the barrel and screwing in an interchangeable choke tube. The choke typically consists of a conical section that smoothly tapers from the bore diameter down to the choke diameter, followed by a cylindrical section of the choke diameter. Briley Manufacturing, a maker of interchangeable shotgun chokes, uses a conical portion about 3 times the bore diameter in length, so the shot is gradually squeezed down with minimal deformation. The cylindrical section is shorter, usually 0.6 to 0.75 inches (15 to 19 mm). There is no good mathematical model that describes how chokes work, making the design and manufacture for chokes more art than science. The use of interchangeable chokes has made it easy to tune the performance of a given combination of shotgun and shotshell to achieve the desired performance.

The choke should be tailored to the range and size of the targets. A skeet shooter, shooting at close targets might use 127 micrometres (0.005 inches) of constriction to produce a 76 cm (30 inch) diameter pattern at a distance of 19 m (21 yards). A trap shooter, shooting at distant targets might use 762 micrometres (0.030 inches) of constriction to produce a 76 cm (30 inch) diameter pattern at 37 m (40 yards). Special chokes for turkey hunting, which requires long range shots at the small head and neck of the bird, can go as high as 1500 micrometres (0.060 inches). The use of too much choke and a small pattern increases the difficulty of hitting the target, the use of too little choke produces large patterns with insufficient pellet density to reliably break targets or kill game. "Cylinder barrels" have no constriction. See also: Slug barrel

Table of shotgun chokes
for a 12 gauge shotgun using lead shot



American Name

percentage of shot
in a 76 cm (30 in) circle
at 37 m (40 yd)

Total spread at 37 m

Total spread at 40 yds

Effective range

Effective range



















Improved Cylinder








Light Modified











Improved Modified



Light Full











Extra Full



Super Full

Other specialized choke tubes exist as well. Some turkey hunting tubes have constrictions greater than "Super Full", or additional features like porting to reduce recoil, or "straight rifling" that is designed to stop any spin that the shot column might acquire when traveling down the barrel. These tubes are often extended tubes, meaning they project beyond the end of the bore, giving more room for things like a longer conical section. Shot spreaders or diffusion chokes work opposite of normal chokes—they are designed to spread the shot more than a cylinder bore, generating wider patterns for very short range use. A number of recent spreader chokes, such as the Briley "Diffusion" line, actually use rifling in the choke to spin the shot slightly, creating a wider spread. The Briley Diffusion uses a 1 in 36 cm twist, as does the FABARM Lion Paradox shotgun.

Oval chokes, which are designed to provide a shot pattern wider than it is tall, are sometimes found on combat shotguns, primarily those of the Vietnam War era. Military versions of the Ithaca 37 with duckbill choke were used in limited numbers during the Vietnam War by US Navy Seals. It arguably increased effectiveness in close range engagements against multiple targets. Two major disadvantages plagued the system. One was erratic patterning. The second was that the shot would spread too quickly providing a very limited effective zone.

Offset chokes, where the pattern is intentionally slightly off of center, are used to change the point of impact. For instance, an offset choke can be used to make a double barrelled shotgun with poorly aligned barrels hit the same spot with both barrels.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: shotguns   لینک مطلب    
» winchester

A Winchester M1897, one of the first successful pump-action shotgun designs

In pump-action shotguns, a sliding forearm handle (the pump) works the action, extracting the spent shell and inserting a new one while cocking the hammer or striker as the pump is worked. A pump gun is typically fed from a tubular magazine underneath the barrel, which also serves as a guide for the pump. The rounds are fed in one by one through a port in the receiver, where they are lifted by a lever called the elevator and pushed forward into the chamber by the bolt. A pair of latches at the rear of the magazine holds the rounds in place and facilitates feeding of one shell at a time. If it is desired to load the gun fully, a round may be loaded through the ejection port directly into the chamber, or cycled from the magazine, which is then topped off with another round. Well-known examples include the Winchester Model 1897, Remington 870 and Mossberg 500/590.

Pump-action shotguns are common hunting, fowling and sporting shotguns. Hunting models generally have a barrel between 600–700 mm (24"-28"). Tube-fed models designed for hunting often come with a dowel rod or other stop that is inserted into the magazine and reduces the capacity of the gun to three shells (two in the magazine and one chambered) as is mandated by U.S. federal law when hunting migratory birds. They can also easily be used with an empty magazine as a single-shot weapon, by simply dropping the next round to be fired into the open ejection port after the spent round is ejected. For this reason, pump-actions are commonly used to teach novice shooters under supervision, as the trainer can load each round more quickly than with a break-action, while unlike a break-action the student can maintain his grip on the gun and concentrate on proper handling and firing of the weapon.

Pump action shotguns with shorter barrels and no barrel choke (or very little) are highly popular for use in home defense, military and law enforcement, and are commonly known as riot guns. The minimum barrel length for shotguns in most of the U.S. is 18" (457 mm), and this barrel length (sometimes 18.5"-20" (470–500 mm) to increase magazine capacity and/or ensure the gun is legal regardless of measuring differences) is the primary choice for riot shotguns. The shorter barrel makes the weapon easier to maneuver around corners and in tight spaces, though slightly longer barrels are sometimes used outdoors for a tighter spread pattern or increased accuracy of slug projectiles. Home-defense/law enforcement shotguns are usually chambered for 12-gauge shells, providing maximum shot power and the use of a variety of projectiles such as buckshot, rubber, sandbag and slug shells, but 20-gauge (common in bird-hunting shotguns) or .410 (common in youth-size shotguns) are also available in defense-type shotgun models allowing easier use by novice shooters.

A riot shotgun has many advantages over a handgun or rifle. Compared to "defense-caliber" handguns (chambered for 9mm Parabellum, .38 Special, .357 Magnum, .40 S&W, .45ACP and similar), a shotgun has far more power and damage potential (up to 10 times the muzzle energy of a .45ACP cartridge), allowing a "one-shot stop" that is more difficult to achieve with typical handgun loads. Compared to a rifle, riot shotguns are easier to maneuver due to the shorter barrel, still provide better damage potential at indoor distances (generally 3–5 meters/yards), and reduce the risk of "over penetration"; that is, the bullet or shot passing completely through the target and continuing beyond, which poses a risk to those behind the target through walls. The wide spread of the shot reduces the importance of shot placement compared to a single projectile, which increases the effectiveness of "point shooting" - rapidly aiming simply by pointing the weapon in the


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: shotguns   لینک مطلب    
» Break-action

A view of the break-action of a typical double-barrelled shotgun, shown with the action open


For most of the history of the shotgun, the break-action breech loading double was the most common type, typically divided into two subtypes: the traditional "side by side" shotgun features two barrels mounted one beside the other (as the name suggests), whereas the "over and under" shotgun has the two barrels mounted one on top of the other. Side by side shotguns were traditionally used for hunting and other sporting pursuits (early long barreled side-by side shotguns were known as Fowling Pieces for their use hunting ducks and other birds), whereas over and under shotguns are more commonly associated with sporting use (such as clay pigeon/skeet shooting). Both types of double-barrel shotgun are used for hunting and sporting use, with the individual configuration largely being a matter of personal preference.

Another, less commonly encountered type of break-action shotgun is the combination gun, which is an over and under design with one shotgun barrel and one rifle barrel (more often rifle on top, but rifle on bottom was not uncommon). There is also a class of break action guns called drillings, which contain three barrels, usually 2 shotgun barrels of the same gauge and a rifle barrel, though the only common theme is that at least one barrel be a shotgun barrel. The most common arrangement was essentially a side by side shotgun with the rifle barrel below and centered. Usually a drilling containing more than one rifle barrel would have both rifle barrels in the same caliber, but examples do exist with different caliber barrels, usually a .22 Long Rifle and a centerfire cartridge. Although very rare, drillings with three and even four (a vierling) shotgun barrels were made.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: shotguns   لینک مطلب    
» AU

A U.S. Marine fires a Benelli M4 shotgun during training in Arta, Djibouti, December 23, 2006.

The wide range of forms the shotgun can take leads to some significant differences between what is technically a shotgun and what is legally considered a shotgun. A fairly broad attempt to define a shotgun is made in the United States Code (18 USC 921), which defines the shotgun as "a weapon designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder, and designed or redesigned and made or remade to use the energy of the explosive in a fixed shotgun shell to fire through a smooth bore either a number of ball shot or a single projectile for each single pull of the trigger."

A rifled slug, with finned rifling designed to enable the projectile to be safely fired through a choked barrel, is an example of a single projectile. Some shotguns have rifled barrels and are designed to be used with a "saboted" bullet; one which is typically encased in a two-piece plastic ring (sabot) designed to peel away after it exits the barrel, leaving the bullet, now spinning after passing through the rifled barrel, to continue toward the target. These shotguns, although they have rifled barrels, still use a shotgun-style shell instead of a rifle cartridge and may in fact still fire regular multipellet shotgun shells, but the rifling in the barrel will affect the shot pattern. The use of a rifled barrel blurs the distinction between rifle and shotgun, and in fact the early rifled shotgun barrels went by the name Paradox for just that reason. Hunting laws may differentiate between smooth barreled and rifled barreled guns.

Also, many people would likely call a fully automatic shotgun a shotgun, even though legally it would fall into a different category. Amongst the general populace, any gun that fires shotgun shells could be considered a shotgun. This might include the rare shot-pistol (a pistol designed to fire a standard shotgun shell).

Riot gun has long been a synonym for a shotgun, especially a short-barreled shotgun. During the 19th and early 20th century, these were used to disperse rioters and revolutionaries. The wide spray of the shot ensured a large group would be hit, but the light shot would ensure more wounds than fatalities. When the ground was paved, police officers would often ricochet the shot off the ground, slowing down the shot and spreading pattern even further. To this day specialized police and defensive shotguns are called riot shotguns. The introduction of rubber bullets and bean bag rounds ended the practice of using shot for the most part, but riot shotguns are still used to fire a variety of less lethal rounds for riot control.

A sawed-off shotgun (or "sawn-off") refers to a shotgun whose barrel has been shortened, leaving it more maneuverable, easier to use at short range and more readily concealed. Many countries establish a legal minimum barrel length that precludes easy concealment (this length is 18" (457 mm) in the U.S.). The sawed-off shotgun is sometimes known as a "Lupara" (in Italian a generic reference to the word "Lupo" ("Wolf")) in Southern Italy and Sicily.

Coach guns are similar to sawn-off shotguns, except they are manufactured with an 46 cm (18") barrel and are legal for civilian ownership in some jurisdictions. Coach guns are also more commonly associated with the American Old West or Australian Colonial period, and often used for hunting in bush, scrub, or marshland where a longer barrel would be unwieldy or impractical.

A backpacker shotgun has a short barrel and either a full-size stock or pistol grip, depending on legislation in intended markets. The overall length of these weapons is frequently less than 90 cm (36 inches), with some measuring up at less than 63 cm (25 inches). These weapons are typically break-action .410 "gauge" (caliber), single-barrel designs with no magazine and no automatic ejection capability. They typically employ a cylinder bore, but infrequently are available in modified choke as well. One example of a backpacker shotgun is the Verney-Carron Snake Charmer or the pistol grip Snake Charmer II.

Backpacker shotguns are popular for "home defense" purposes and as "survival" weapons. Other examples include a variety of .410 / rifle "survival" guns manufactured in over/under designs. In the drilling arrangement, a rimfire or centrefire rifle barrel is located beneath the barrel of a .410 gauge shotgun. Generally, there is one manually-cocked external hammer and an external selection lever to select which caliber of cartridge to fire. A notable example is the Springfield Armory M6 Scout, a .410 / .22 issued to United States Air Force personnel as a "survival" gun in the event of a forced landing or accident in a wilderness area. Variants have been used by Israeli, Canadian, and American armed forces. Shotgun/rifle combination guns with two, three, and occasionally even four barrels are available from a number of makers, primarily European. These provided flexibility, enabling the hunter to effectively shoot at flushing birds or more distant small mammals while only carrying one gun.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: shotguns   لینک مطلب    
» Types of handguns

Types of handguns

The general types of handguns are listed below in their order of historical appearance. Each type can be classified into many subtypes. Some of these types can also be differently classified using the general distinction between muzzle-loading firearms (loading from the front of the barrel) and breech-loading firearms (loading from behind the barrel).

Single-shot pistols

Western European handgun, 1380. 18 cm-long and weighing 1.04 kg, it was fixed to a wooden pole to facilitate manipulation. Musée de l'Armée.

Hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). 

Single-shot pistols are theoretically the simplest pistols. The earliest handguns were single-shot, muzzle-loading guns with ignition provided by inserting a smoldering match cord into a touch hole. As such, they were essentially nothing more than miniature cannons, small enough to be handheld.

Improvements followed in subsequent centuries, as various types of locks (ignition devices) were invented. In the matchlock, the separate match cord was affixed to a spring-loaded pivot which could be tripped by a trigger. In the wheellock, a mechanism analogous to that used in today's cigarette lighters replaced the smoldering match cord. In the 17th century, the flintlock, which strikes a flint against steel, appeared. (The flintlock, amazingly, remained state-of-the-art for some two hundred years.) In the 19th century, percussion caps were developed, followed shortly by modern integrated-primer cartridges, and hammers therefore traded their flint for firing pins.

Single-shot pistols continue to be manufactured today and are often used for handgun hunting game, including big game. The most powerful handguns are capable of taking all game including elephant.

Multi-barreled pistols

Not long after the very beginning of firearms, inventors began experimenting with multi-barreled weapons in the quest for the ability to fire more than one shot before needing to reload. Not surprisingly, all types of firearms were included in their efforts, from volley guns to analogously devised handguns. Before anyone had developed a practical capability for delivering multiple loads to one barrel in quick succession (which is how repeating fire is usually accomplished today), gun smiths were aggregating multiple loaded barrels into one place.

Some examples of multi-barreled pistols are:

·         Duck's-foot pistols

·         Derringers

·         Pepper-box guns (variously referred to as pepper-box pistols or pepper-box revolvers)

·         Howdah pistols, often made from double-barreled rifles.


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» Semi-automatic pistols

Semi-automatic pistols

The next development in handgun history after a practical revolver was the development of the semi-automatic pistol, which uses the energy of one shot to reload the chamber for the next. Typically recoil energy from a fired round is mechanically harnessed; however, larger calibers may also be gas operated (e.g. Desert Eagle). After a round is fired, the pistol will cycle, ejecting the spent casing and chambering a new round from the magazine, allowing another shot to take place immediately.

Some terms that have been, or still are, used as synonyms for "semi-automatic pistol" are automatic pistol, auto pistol, autoloader, self-loading pistol and self loader.

Compact semi-automatic Smith & Wesson .45 ACP Chief's Special — Model CS45.

Walther P99, a semi-automatic pistol from the late 1990s.



  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: pistols   لینک مطلب    
» Revolvers


Colt Model 1873 Single Action Army

A 1930s vintage Enfield revolver.

With the development of the revolver in the 19th century, gunsmiths had finally achieved the goal of a practical capability for delivering multiple loads to one handgun barrel in quick succession. Revolvers feed ammunition via the rotation of a cartridge-filled cylinder, in which each cartridge is contained in its own ignition chamber, and is sequentially brought into alignment with the weapon's barrel by a mechanism linked to the weapon's trigger (double-action) or its hammer (single-action). These nominally cylindrical chambers, usually numbering between five and eight depending on the size of the revolver and the size of the cartridge being fired, are bored through the cylinder so that their axes are parallel to the cylinder's axis of rotation; thus, as the cylinder rotates, the chambers revolve about the cylinder's axis.

There is a hybrid form of the revolver, known as the automatic revolver, which combines the revolving chamber concept of the conventional revolver with the recoil-harnessing, self-cycling ability of the semi-automatic pistol. Weapons of this type are rare, as the technology was quickly rendered obsolete by a combination of the double-action revolver and the semi-automatic pistol.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: pistols   لینک مطلب    
» Multiple senses of the word "pistol"

Nomenclature variations

Multiple senses of the word "pistol"

The word "pistol" is often synonymous with the word "handgun". Some handgun experts make a technical distinction that views pistols as a subset of handguns. Sometimes in American usage, the term "pistol" refers to a handgun whose chamber is integral with the barrel, making pistols distinct from the other main type of handgun, the revolver, which has a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers. However, Commonwealth usage makes no distinction at a technical level—"pistol" may refer to revolvers, semi-automatics, or muzzle-loading/cap-&-ball handguns. For example, the official designation of the Webley Mk VI was "Pistol, Revolver, Webley No. 1 Mk VI", and the designation "Pistol No. 2 Mk I" was used to refer to both the Enfield Revolver and the later Browning Hi-Power semi-automatic.

The first pistols were made as early as the 15th century, but their creator is unknown. By the 18th century, the term came to be used often to refer to handheld firearms. Practical revolver designs appeared in the 19th century, and it was in that century that the (sometimes-observed) technical differentiation in usage from the words "pistol" and "revolver" developed, at that time differentiating the newer revolver from the single-shot pistols previously in use.

Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, model 1849, using a Percussion cap mechanism.

Derringers are small and can be easily concealed.



  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: pistols   لینک مطلب    
» Machine pistols

Machine pistols

A machine pistol is generally defined as a firearm designed to be fired with one hand, and capable of fully automatic or selective fire. While there are a number of machine pistols such as the Glock 18 and later models of the Mauser C96, these are rare; the light weight, small size, and extremely rapid rates of fire of a machine pistol make them difficult to control, making the larger and heavier submachine gun a better choice in cases where the small size of a machine pistol is not needed. Most machine pistols can attach a shoulder stock (the Heckler & Koch VP70 would only fire single rounds at a time unless the stock was attached); others, such as the Beretta 93R, add a forward handgrip. Either of these additions technically creates a legal non-pistol under the US National Firearms Act, as pistols are by definition designed to be fired with one hand. The addition of a stock or forward handgrip is considered a design change that creates either a short-barreled rifle or any other weapon, and therefore such additions are generally only found on legal machine guns.

Luger or P00 Parabellum, used by the Swiss Army from 1900 to 1949 (among other Parabellum models).


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: pistols   لینک مطلب    
» Lever action pistols

Lever action pistols

Volcanic Pistol .41 cal

The first lever action pistols were based on a Horace Smith and Daniel B. Wesson patent of 1854. The Smith & Wesson pistols were made in Norwich, Connecticut 1854-55. In 1855, Oliver F. Winchester became an active investor and H. Smith and D.B. Wesson both dropped out of the enterprise. In July 1855, the name was changed to Volcanic Repeating Arms Company, and later to New Haven Arms Company, opening an important chapter in Winchester's history. The production of the Volcanic pistols lasted until 1860. Two models were produced: The Navy Pistol .41 cal. with 6" / 8" / 16 " barrels and a Pocket Pistol .31 cal. with 3½" / 6" barrels.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: pistols   لینک مطلب    
» Handgun


"Pistol" redirects here. For other uses, see Pistol (disambiguation).

"Pistols" redirects here. For the football team, see Pueblo Pistols.


A handgun is a firearm designed to be held and operated by one hand, with the other hand optionally supporting the shooting hand. This characteristic differentiates handguns as a general class of firearms from their larger counterparts: long guns such as rifles and shotguns (which are held in both hands and usually braced against the shoulder), mounted weapons such as machine guns and auto cannons, and larger weapons such as artillery

Some handgun subtypes include derringers single-shot pistols, revolvers semi-automatic pistol paper boxes, and machine pistols The overlapping variations in meaning of the words "pistol" and "handgun" are discussed below

A Browning 9×19mm Hi-power, also known as the GP (Grande Puissance) 35.

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: pistols   لینک مطلب    
» Etymology of "pistol"

Etymology of "pistol"

A disassembled Taurus Millennium series PT145 pistol.


The word "pistol" is derived from the French pistole (or pistolet), which has these possible origins:

·         From the Czech pistole and this one from the Czech píšťala (flute or pipe, referring to the shape of a Hussite firearm), from Middle High German pischulle or from Middle French pistole.

·         From the city of Pistoia, Italy, where hand-held guns (designed to be fired from horseback) were first produced in the 1540s.

·         That early pistols were carried by cavalry in holsters hung from the pommel (or pistallo in medieval French) of a horse's saddle


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: pistols   لینک مطلب    
» Advantages of semi-automatics

Advantages of semi-automatics

Smith & Wesson 9mm semi-automatic.

·         Larger ammunition capacity: semi-automatics typically carry around 7 to 20 rounds; whilst most revolvers carry between 5 and 8 rounds.

·         Compact ammo storage: The flat shape of most magazines make them more convenient to carry than the speed loaders needed for revolvers.

·         Slimmer profile: Semi-automatics often have a significantly slimmer and easier to conceal frame as they do not suffer from the bulge produced by cylinder of a revolver.

·         Lighter: Some modern semi-automatics have frames made of polymers, making them lighter and more comfortable to carry for long periods. Recent advancements in technology and design major manufacturers are producing polymer frame revolvers like the Ruger LCR, Smith & Wesson Bodyguard 38, and Taurus Protector Polymer that rivals the weight of polymer semi-automatics.

·         Safety: Some semi-automatics incorporate an external safety switch, which prevents the gun from firing. Most revolvers do not have such a feature, though the same is true of many semi-automatics. There is debate over whether external safety switches are necessary, particularly in models with trigger-activated firing pin blocks, though many users prefer them for peace of mind regardless of whether or not they are safer.

·         Quieter: With similar ammunition, a semi-automatic is typically slightly quieter. Flash and noise can be suppressed. Noise and flash suppressors are ineffective in most revolvers due to noise and flash escaping the gap between the cylinder and the barrel. Suppressors are illegal in many jurisdictions.

·         Less expensive ammunition: semi-automatics often fire standard military ammunition, which is more readily available and cheaper thanks to extensive mass production. However, some revolver cartridges such as .38 Special are comparable in their cost and availability to popular auto loading cartridges such as 9mm Parabellum and .45 ACP.


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع: pistols   لینک مطلب    
» FMK-3 (Argentina)

FMK-3 (Argentina)

Caliber: 9x19mm Luger/Para
Weight: 3.40 kg empty
Lenght (stock closed/open): 523 / 693 mm
Barrel lenght: 290 mm
Rate of fire: 650 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 25, 32 and 40 rounds
Effective range: 100 meters

The FMK-3 submachine gun was developed by Fabricaciones Militares company of Argentina circa 1974 and is being manufactured by Small Arms factory of Domingo Matheu. It is used by Army and Police of Argentina, and also, in semi-automatic version is sold to civilians under the name of FMK-5.

FMK-3 is a blowback-operated, selective fire submachine gun. It uses telescoped bolt, that sleeves around the rear part of the barrel when closed. Double stak magazine is inserted into the pistol grip. Receiver and pistol grip is made from steel stampings, safety/fire selector switch is located at the left side of the weapon above the pistol grip. There also is an automated grip safety at the rear of the pistol grip. The sights are of flip-up type with "L"-shaped rear sight blade, marked for range of 50 and 100 meters. The retractable buttstock is made from steel wire.

It is said that FMK-3 is quite comfortable to use and accurate in full-auto, putting all hits into 125 mm (5 inches) groups when firing offhand at 50 meters (short bursts, obviously).

Thanks to Alejandro Albertengo from Argentina for information.

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» ماشین گانز 2005

Submachine guns
a brief introduction

Estonian Special Forces personnel with HK MP5-SD silenced submachine guns
The submachine gun is an automatic or selective-fired shoulder weapon that fires pistol-caliber ammunition. The concept of submachine gun dates back to World War One; the trench warfare of this war required effective and compact weapons for short-range fighting in trenches; additionally, a lightweight and maneuverable fully automatic weapon was desirable to complement light machine guns in both defensive and offensive scenarios, to cover last 200 meters of assault on enemy positions. The first weapon which can be considered to some extent as the world's first submachine gun was the Italian Villar-Perosa, which was a twin-barreled automatic weapon that fired 9mm Glisenti pistol ammunition from top-mounted box magazines. It was compact, but its primary tactical role was of short-range machine gun; therefore it was usually fired from some sort of mount, and fitted with machine-gun type spade grips instead of more conventional rifle-type stock. 

                                  Villar-Perosa submachine gun in museum exposition

The first true submachine gun was the Bergmann / Schmeisser MP.18,I, which saw some action during closing days of the Great war. This was a shoulder-fired weapon, that set the basic pattern for all following weapons of its class. The inter-war decades produced a significant number of submachine guns, but the tactical niche for these weapons was still unclear for many military experts. It was the Grand Chako war, the Spanish Civil war and Russo-Finnish Winter war of 1940 that proved the viability of submachine guns as general-issue weapons for fighting troops. Nevertheless, regardless of the large number of available models, by the start of World War Two in most armies submachine guns were relegated to secondary role. For example, the very technically advanced Wehrmacht (Hitler's army) issued MP-38 and MP-40 submachine guns to infantry troops in proportion of about one SMG per ten bolt action rifles. It was the Red (Soviet) army which issued PPSh-41 submachine guns as primary infantry weapons to entire companies and battalions. Despite the success of several new submachine guns, developed during the WW2, this war marked the start of decline of submachine guns as primary infantry weapons. The appearance of assault rifle, which, while being only slightly heavier than most SMGs, had much longer effective range, put an abrupt end to infantry use of submachine guns in Soviet army. On the other hand, the NATO countries still issued 9mm submachine guns to many non-infantry units and certain soldiers in infantry (i.e. scouts, machine gun and mortar crews etc) to complement relatively large and heavy semi-automatic or fully-automatic rifles firing powerful 7,62x51 NATO ammunition. The appearance (and wide distribution) of small-caliber assault rifles marked the final phase of history of submachine gun as general-issue infantry weapon


German police officer fires Schmeisser MP.18,I submachine gun (circa 1920)


American soldier fires Thompson submachine gun (WW2)

Despite of all said above, it must be noted that submachine guns still posses several qualities that are very useful in certain military scenarios. For example, submachine guns can be easily silenced, making them very useful for various special operations forces.
The police and security use of submachine guns, on the other hand, has been greatly increased during last 30 or 40 years. Proliferation of international terrorism, drugs trafficking, gang crime and other violent crimes forced many police forces to adopt a variety of submachine guns for special police teams. Compact submachine guns, which appeared during 1960's and 1970's, such as Micro-Uzi or HK MP5k, were quickly adopted by various VIP protection teams that favored compact size combined with massive short-range firepower of such guns. Of cause, the other side of the law also saw benefits of submachine guns; for example, more than few gangsters, outlaws and terrorists used various submachine guns, starting with "Chicago typewriter" (Thompson submachine gun) and up to Czechoslovak Scorpion or Croatian Agram 2000.

Russian law enforcement officer holds compact submachine gun during counter-terrorism operation (2005)


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع:    لینک مطلب    
» ST Kinetics CPW submachine gun - Compact Personal Weapon (Singapore)

ST Kinetics CPW submachine gun - Compact Personal Weapon (Singapore)

STK CPW prototye with red dot sight and telescoping butt collapsed

Caliber 9x19mm Luger / Parabellum, possible others
Weight 1.5 kg
Length (stock closed/open) 350 / 500 mm
Barrel length 180 mm
Rate of fire 900-1100 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity 30 rounds
Effective range 100 meters

The Compact Personal Weapon (or CPW in short) is a new development of Singaporean company ST Kinetics. CPW follows the current trend for modularity of design, with intent of providing a compact personal defense weapon of about pistol size but of greater effectiveness for military personnel which is normally not issued with rifle of any kind. It is yet to be seen if STK CPW will be produced in any numbers and adopted by any military or security force.

The STK CPW is delayed blowback operated weapon that fires in single shots and in full automatic mode. It is made mostly from impact-resistant polymer, with aluminum alloy receiver. Barrel and bolt can be replaced to change the caliber from standard 9x19 to others (most possible choice being some small-caliber armor piercing round such as 4.6x30 HK or 5.7x28 FN). Of cause, this also will require use of different magazines, which, in turn, may require replacement of the rear part of the grip. The rear (removable) section of the grip and the magazine body are made from translucent polymer for easy check of remaining ammunition supply. Gun features ambidextrous controls, including safety, fire mode selector, bolt catch release and magazine release. It is fitted with telescoped buttstock. Sights are installed using integral Picatinny rail on the top of receiver, with standard being either open sights or red dot. Additional Picatinny rail is provided at the bottom of the gun housing, in front f the trigger guard


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» سری جدید ماشین گانز



The C6 is a general purpose machine gun (GPMG) and is issued in substantial numbers to combat arms units. The C6 is a fully automatic, air cooled, belt fed gas operated weapon that can be adjusted to fire between 650 and 1000 rounds per minute.

The army uses this weapon in a number of roles. In the infantry, the C6 GPMG can be carried by dismounted soldiers and is used to provide either fire support or sustained fire. The C6 GPMG is mounted in a variety of vehicles, including theLAV III, the Coyote, and the Leopard C2. In these vehicles the C6 GPMGs are mounted co-axial to the main armament and used to provide fire support to the infantry or for local defence of the vehicle itself.

In the sustained fire role, the C6 GPMG is mounted on a tripod. The C2 sight is used in conjunction with an aiming post to allow the crew to engage targets that they cannot see, due to fog, smoke or darkness.

The C6 GPMG is light enough to be carried and used by soldiers on a variety of operations including patrolling, the advance, hasty defence, and delay and withdrawal operations. The C6 GPMG is normally carried by its sling, which can be looped over either shoulder, and fired from its bipod. In this manner it can be brought into action quickly and effectively.

Ammunition: 7.62 x 51mm NATO
Rate of fire: 650 to 1000 rounds per minute (adjustable)

Weight: 11kg
Length: 1255mm
Operation: gas operated, air cooled, belt fed
Range: Bipod 800 m
Tripod 1800m
Crew: 2 (gunner and loader)
Entered Service: 1978

  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع:    لینک مطلب    
» M Weapon group


Manufacturer: Specially trained armorers at Quantico, Virginia.
Length: 44 inches (111.76 centimeters)
Barrel length: 24 inches (61 centimeters)
Weight: 14.5 pounds (6.58 kilograms)
Bore diameter: 7.62mm (.308 inches)
Maximum effective range: 1000 yards (914 meters)
Muzzle velocity: 2550 feet (777 meters) per second
Chamber pressure: 50,000 psi,
Magazine capacity: 5 rounds
Unit Replacement Cost: $2,105

Features: The M40A1 sniper rifle is based on the Remington model 700. It is a heavy barrel, bolt action, magazine fed 7.62mm rifle that is optimized for accuracy with Match Grade ammunition. The rifle is equipped with a special 10 power Unertl sniper scope. With scope, the rifle weighs approximately 14.5 pounds. It is equipped with a built-in five round magazine. This weapon is hand-made by specially trained and qualified armorers at Quantico, Virginia. The unique characteristics of the M40A1 Sniper Rifle are: commercial competition-grade heavy barrel, McMillan fiberglass stock and butt pad, modified Winchester Model 70 floorplate and trigger guard, and modified and lightened trigger. In addition, each stock is epoxy bedded for accuracy and all weapons must shoot less than one minute of angle (MOA).

Background: The M40A1 was put into service in the 1970s to meet the need of a long range sniper rifle. Each rifle is hand built by specially trained and qualified personnel at the Marine Corps Marksmanship Training Unit (MTU) at Quantico, Virginia 


Primary function: Infantry weapon
Manufacturer: Colt Manufacturing and Fabrique Nationale Manufacturing Inc.
Length: 39.63 inches (100.66 centimeters)
Weight, with 30 round magazine: 8.79 pounds (3.99 kilograms)
Bore diameter: 5.56mm (.233 inches)
Maximum effective range:
Area target: 2,624.8 feet (800 meters)
Point target: 1,804.5 feet (550 meters)
Muzzle velocity: 2,800 feet (853 meters) per second
Rate of fire:
Cyclic: 800 rounds per minute
Sustained: 12-15 rounds per minute
Semiautomatic: 45 rounds per minute
Burst: 90 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 30 rounds
Unit Replacement Cost: $586

Features: The M16A2 5.56mm rifle is a lightweight, air-cooled, gas-operated, magazine-fed, shoulder- or hip-fired weapon designed for either automatic fire (3-round bursts) or semiautomatic fire (single shot) through the use of a selector lever. The weapon has a fully adjustable rear sight. The bottom of the trigger guard opens to provide access to the trigger while wearing winter mittens. The upper receiver/barrel assembly has a fully adjustable rear sight and a compensator which helps keep the muzzle down during firing. The steel bolt group and barrel extension are designed with locking lugs which lock the bolt group to the barrel extension allowing the rifle to have a lightweight aluminum receiver.

Background: The M16A2 rifle is a product improvement of the M16A1 rifle. The improvements are:

  • a heavier, stiffer barrel than the barrel of the M16A1;
  • a redesigned handguard, using two identical halves, with a round contour which is sturdier and provides a better grip when holding the rifle;
  • a new buttstock and pistol grip made of a tougher injection moldable plastic that provides much greater resistance to breakage;
  • an improved rear sight which can be easily adjusted for windage and range;
  • a modified upper receiver design to deflect ejected cartridges, and preclude the possibility of the ejected cartridges hitting the face of a left-handed firer;
  • a burst control device, that limits the number of rounds fired in the automatic mode to three per trigger pull, which increases accuracy while reducing ammunition expenditure;
  • a muzzle compensator, designed to reduce position disclosure and improve controllability and accuracy in both burst and rapid semi-automatic fire;
  • a heavier barrel with a 1 in 7 twist to fire NATO standard SS 109 type (M855) ammunition which is also fired from the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW). This further increases the effective range and penetration of the rifle cartridge. The M16A2 will also
  • shoot the older M193 ammunition designed for a 1 in 12 twist 


Weight: Launcher: 3 pounds (1.36 kilograms)
Rifle (M16A2): 8.79 pounds (3.99 kg)
Total (including 30 rounds): 11.79 pounds (5.35 kg)
Bore diameter: 40mm
Maximum effective range: Area target: 1148.35 feet (350 meters)
Point target: 492.15 feet (150 meters)
Maximum range: 1312.4 feet (400 meters)
Minimum safe range: Training: 426.53 feet (130 meters)
Combat: 101.71 feet (31 meters)
Unit Replacement Cost: $601

Features: The M203 40mm Grenade Launcher is used while attached to an M16A2 5.56mm rifle. It is a lightweight, compact, breech loading, pump action, single shot launcher. The launcher consists of a hand guard and sight assembly with an adjustable metallic folding, short-range blade sight assembly, and an aluminum receiver assembly which houses the barrel latch, barrel stop and firing mechanism. The launcher is capable of firing a variety of low velocity 40mm ammunition. The launcher also has a quadrant sight which may be attached to the M16A2 carrying handle and is used when precision is required out to the maximum effective range of the weapon.

Background: The M203 was designed and procured as the replacement for the M79 grenade launcher of the Vietnam era 


Primary function: Semiautomatic pistol
Builder: Beretta and Beretta USA
Length: 8.54 inches (21.69 centimeters)
Width: 1.50 inches (3.81 centimeters)
Height: 5.51 inches (14 centimeters)
Barrel length: 4.92 inches (12.5 centimeters)
Weight fully loaded: 2.55 pounds (1.16 kilograms)
Bore diameter: 9mm (approximately .355 inches)
Maximum effective range: 152.5 feet (50 meters)
Magazine capacity: 15 rounds
Muzzle velocity: 1200 feet (365 meters) per second
Unit Replacement Cost: $263

Features: The M9 is a light weight, semiautomatic pistol manufactured by Beretta and designed to replace the M1911A1 .45 caliber pistol and .38 caliber revolvers. The M9 has redundant automatic safety features to help prevent unintentional discharges. It can be fired in either double or single action mode and can be unloaded without activating the trigger while the safety is in the "on" position. The M9 pistol has a 15-round magazine, and may be fired without a magazine inserted. This weapon can have the hammer lowered from the cocked, "ready to fire," position to the uncocked position without activating the trigger by placing the thumb safety on the "on" position.

Background: The 9mm Pistol Program was a Congressionally-directed Non-Developmental Initiative to standardize DoD with NATO and field one handgun for all United States armed services. Beretta of Italy was awarded a multi-year contract for delivery of over 500,000 pistols. The contract award stipulated that production of the weapon must transition from Italian to US production after two years. The US Army is the lead service in this program


  نويسنده: جنگ2جنگ  تاریخ: Sat 17 Jul 2010  موضوع:    لینک مطلب